ENERGY QUEST HISTORY

 

EQ History and EQ NEEDF Letters: (1); (2); (3); (4); (5); (6) & (7) from 1979 to 2001 frozen in time

 

 

 President Clinton's FY 2000 Budget For Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency:

 

PROVIDE TAX CREDIT FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDING EQUIPMENT

 

Current Law

 

No income tax credit is provided currently for investment in energy-efficient building equipment.

 

Reasons for Change

 

A credit for types of building equipment that are substantially more energy efficient than conventional equipment will

help to accelerate the development and distribution of energy-efficient technologies. A credit would reduce costs to

consumers, increasing demand for the equipment and reducing manufacturing costs, while also spurring technological

 innovation and reducing energy consumption.

 

 Proposal:

 

A credit of 10 percent of the purchase price (up to a maximum of $250 per unit) would be allowed for the purchase after

December 31, 1999 and before January 1, 2002 of the following building equipment:

 

Electric heat pumps (equipment using electrically powered vapor compression cycles to extract heat from air in one space

and deliver it to air in another space) with a heating efficiency of at least 9 HSPF (Heating Seasonal Performance Factor)

and a cooling efficiency of at least 13.5 SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating).

 

Central air conditioners with an efficiency of at least 13.5 SEER.

 

Advanced natural gas water heaters (equipment using a variety of mechanisms to increase steady-state efficiency and

reduce standby and vent losses) with an Energy Factor of at least 0.65 in the standard Department of Energy (DOE) test

procedure. A credit of 20 percent of the purchase price would be allowed for the purchase after December 31, 1999 and

before January 1, 2004 of the following building equipment:

 

Fuel cells (equipment using an electrochemical process to generate electricity and heat) with an electricity-only generation

efficiency of at least 35 percent and a minimum generating capacity of 5 kilowatts. The maximum credit would be $500 per

kilowatt of capacity.

 

Electric heat pump hot water heaters (equipment using electrically powered vapor compression cycles to extract heat from

air and deliver it to a hot water storage tank) with an Energy Factor of at least 1.7 in the standard DOE test procedure. The

maximum credit would be $500 per unit.

 

Electric heat pumps with a heating efficiency of at least 9 HSPF and a cooling efficiency of at least 15 SEER. The

maximum credit would be $500 per unit.

 

Central air conditioners with an efficiency of at least 15 SEER. The maximum credit would be $500 per unit.

 

Advanced natural gas water heaters with an Energy Factor of at least 0.80 in the standard DOE test procedure. The

maximum credit would be $500 per unit.

 

Natural gas heat pumps (equipment using either a gas-absorption cycle or a gas-driven engine to power the vapor

compression cycle to extract heat from one source and deliver it to another) with a coefficient of performance for heating of

at least 1.25 and for cooling of at least 0.70. The maximum credit would be $1,000 per unit.

A credit would be allowed only for final purchases from unrelated third parties. The credit would be nonrefundable. Credits

for equipment used for business purposes would be subject to the limitations on the general business credit and would

reduce the basis of the equipment.

 

TAX CREDIT FOR PURCHASE OF ENERGY EFFICIENT NEW HOMES

   

Current law

 

No deductions or credits are provided currently for the purchase of energy-efficient new homes.

 

Reasons for change

 

Residences, which account for about one-sixth of all U.S. greenhouse gases, offer one of the largest single sources of

carbon saving potential. Some States and certain Federal programs require new houses to meet Model Energy Code

standards for insulation and related construction standards, and for heating, cooling and hot water equipment. By the use of

cost-effective means, many new homes could reduce energy consumption by 30 to 50 percent or more compared to the

standards in the Model Energy Code or the more recent 1998 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). A targeted

credit for such highly energy-efficient new housing could increase the use of energy-efficient building practices and efficient

heating and cooling equipment. In addition, it may help spur innovation in the ways that houses are designed and built,

thereby providing significant energy-saving and environmental benefits over the long term.

 

Proposal:

 

A tax credit of up to $2,000 would be available to purchasers of highly energy-efficient new homes that meet energy-

efficiency standards for heating, cooling and hot water that significantly exceed those of the IECC. A taxpayer may claim the

credit only if the new home is the taxpayer’s principal residence and reduces energy use by prescribed amounts as compared

to the IECC for single family residences. 

 

The tax credit would be $1,000 for new homes that are at least 30 percent more energy efficient than the IECC standard, and

that are purchased in the two-year period beginning January 1, 2000 and ending December 31, 2001. The tax credit would be

$1,500 for new homes that are at least 40 percent more energy efficient than the IECC standard, and purchased in the three-

year period beginning January 1, 2000 and ending December 31, 2002. The tax credit would be $2,000 for new homes that

are at least 50 percent more energy efficient than the IECC standard, and purchased in the five-year period beginning

January 1, 2000 and ending December 31, 2004.  Information received from Energy Efficiency Equipment & Homes.

http://www.serve.com/commonpurpose/congress/efficiency.html

 

Oregon Residential Energy Tax Credit - You can get a credit on your Oregon income taxes for making your home more

energy-efficient and helping preserve Oregon’s environment. Tax credits are available for:

 

Appliances

 

Premium-efficiency dishwashers, clothes washers, and water heating systems are eligible for a tax credit ranging from $50 to more than $200. The model must be on the Oregon Office of Energy list of certified premium-efficiency appliances. The tax credit is based on the amount of energy saved above standard models and your net purchase price.

 

No refrigerators will qualify for the tax credit during the first part of 2001. Oregon raised specifications for refrigerators to exceed new federal standards, which will increase by 30 percent mid-year. Models that meet Oregon's new specifications likely will be available from manufacturers later in the year.

 

A few of the least efficient Energy Star® clothes washers no longer qualify for the tax credit. Tax credit amounts for some other models are slightly different. The tax credit program is using a new U.S. Department of Energy test procedure that accounts for energy savings resulting from improved spin cycles. Oregon also is using slightly different specifications for larger vs. smaller models.

 

Manufacturers are adding qualifying dishwasher models regularly. Note: Not all Energy Star models qualify. Manufacturers also are adding new water heating systems periodically.

 

Very efficient central, split-system air conditioning systems now qualify for the tax credit. Models with a Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) of 15 or higher and an Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) of 13 or higher qualify. The tax credit for these central air conditioning systems is the amount listed on the Office of Energy qualifying equipment list or 25 percent of the net purchase price, whichever is less.

 

Heat recovery and energy recovery ventilation systems now qualify for the tax credit. They provide balanced ventilation for homes on a continuous (or semi-continuous) basis without the energy loss associated with other ventilation strategies. Typically, a trained heating, ventilating and air conditioning contractor designs and installs these systems. Both collect stale air from kitchens and bathrooms and exhaust it outside. At the same time, fresh outdoor air is filtered, warmed by heat transferred from exhaust air, then delivered to bedrooms or main living areas. Energy recovery systems offer an additional benefit: They transfer moisture between incoming and outgoing air flows to help maintain healthy humidity levels inside. The tax credit for ventilation systems is the amount listed on the Office of Energy qualifying equipment list or 25 percent of the net purchase price, whichever is less.

 

Testing and Servicing Heat Pumps and Central Air Conditioning Systems

 

The Oregon Office of Energy has a tax credit for testing heat pump and central air conditioning systems and servicing them for optimal performance. When a certified contractor performs work, you get a 25 percent tax credit for eligible costs, up to $250. (Duct testing and sealing also is eligible for a 25 percent tax credit, up to $250.) Call the Office of Energy to find out if contractors in your area are certified to perform testing and servicing.

 

Premium Efficiency Ducts

 

As much as 25 percent of the heat from a forced-air heating system may be lost through leaks in the ductwork. You can get a tax credit for sealing existing ductwork or installing a well-designed and sealed duct system in a new home. The tax credit is 25 percent of the cost of the work, up to $250.  A contractor certified by the Oregon Office of Energy must perform work.

 

Geothermal Space Heating

 

Geothermal heat pumps are three times more efficient in heating your home than baseboard electric heaters. A tax credit of up to $1,500 is available for installing the necessary ground-loop heat exchanger.

 

Solar Water Heating

 

You can get a tax credit of up to $1,500 for buying a solar water heating system for your home. Oregon's certified solar contractors can pre-approve your tax credit. Be sure to get an OG300-certified system that meets the Oregon Solar Energy Industry Association tank standard.

 

Solar Space Heating

 

A solar space heating system that meets at least 10 percent of the home's total energy requirements is eligible for a tax credit of up to $1,500. The tax credit may offset the additional cost of improved design, thermal storage and superior windows.

Solar Electricity

 

A solar photovoltaic system that meets at least 10 percent of the home's total energy requirements is eligible for a tax credit of up to $1,500.

 

Wastewater Heat Recovery

 

Use the waste heat from showers and other hot water uses to cut energy use for water heating by 8 to 12 percent. Wastewater heat recovery systems also can eliminate cold showers. Qualifying models are eligible for a tax credit or $80 to $120 depending on energy savings, not to exceed 25 percent of the cost. You need at least 4 feet of vertical drainpipe from the shower or on the main water drain. You can install the system yourself or hire a plumber. Some installation costs are eligible.

Solar Electric AC Modules

 

Solar electric alternating current (AC) modules are eligible for the tax credit. They include an inverter that converts direct current to alternating current (what household appliances run on). Some of the modules also include a system to store the electricity for use when the sun isn't shining. Common uses for the modules include outdoor lighting, fans, operating gates, and charging batteries and electric fences. The tax credit for modules on the Office of Energy qualifying equipment list is $2 per peak Watt or 25 percent of the net purchase price, whichever is less.

 

Wind Systems

 

You can produce electricity with a wind system and get a tax credit of 60 cents per estimated kWh saved during the first year, up to $1,500. Qualifying costs include wind measuring equipment, turbines, towers, associated components, engineering costs, utility interconnection equipment and installation. You will need wind information for your location and calculations showing how much energy your expect to produce. The wind system must meet at least 10 percent of the total energy requirements of the home.

 

Fuel Cells

 

Fuel cells work like batteries, but run on fuel, almost any kind. They take hydrogen from the fuel and combine it with oxygen, making an electric current in the process. Because they don't burn the fuel and are super-efficient, the only by-products are water, heat and a little CO2. Fuel cells are now entering the residential market. You can use them to make electricity and heat your home and water and get a tax credit of 60 cents per estimated kWh saved during the first year, up to $1,500. The fuel cell system must have a minimum rated stack capacity of 0.5 kilowatts and a minimum rated system capacity of 10 kilowatts.

 

Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

 

You can get a tax credit of up to $750 for buying an alternative-fuel fuel vehicle or converting a vehicle to use an alternative fuel. Qualifying fuels include electricity, natural gas, ethanol, propane and others. You can get an additional tax credit of up to $750 for the charging or fueling system.

 

The Oregon Residential Energy Tax Credit brochure (http://www.energy.state.or.us/res/tax/retcbro.pdf (pdf) explains how you'll save on energy bills and how to apply for the credit. Contact The Oregon Office of Energy with any questions at (503-378-4040 in Salem or 1-800-221-8035 toll-free in Oregon).

 

The Energy Note Buying and Using Home Appliances at http://www.energy.state.or.us/res/appnote.pdf explains how to use your appliances efficiently to reduce your utility bills, maintain your appliances to keep them operating longer and with fewer repairs and look for energy-saving features on new appliances.

 

    E.  Appliances designed more efficient:

     By Cat Lazaroff

 

     “WASHINGTON, DC, May 23, 2000 (ENS) - Appliance manufacturers, energy efficiency advocates and public officials announced an agreement today to improve the energy efficiency of household appliances. The agreement, covering clothes washers and refrigerators, is the result of months of negotiations between appliance manufacturers and a broad coalition of public interest advocates.

 

    A typical family now spends about $200 per year on energy, water, and detergent for doing laundry. The new standards would cut the average bill by about $75 a year.

 

    "America's laundry load will get a lot lighter thanks to this agreement," said Howard Geller, executive director of the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) and a participant in the negotiations. "Specifically, the agreement will reduce the load on consumers' wallets, the load on utility power plants and water systems, and the load on the environment."

 

    The agreement includes joint recommendations for new minimum efficiency standards for clothes washers, tax credits for manufacturers who produce washers or refrigerators that exceed the efficiency standards, and new, higher qualification levels for these products to obtain the voluntary Energy Star label designation.

 

    "The clothes washer standards that manufacturers have agreed to will reduce hot water use and the total energy consumption associated with clothes washers by about one third. As a result, consumers will cut their energy, water and detergent purchases by over $25 billion during the next 30 years," said Geller.

 

    The new clothes washer standard is one of several standards the DOE has committed to upgrade this year. The DOE proposed new standards for water heaters last month and is expected to propose new central air conditioner standards this summer. Improving air conditioner efficiency is particularly important because of the strain cooling equipment places on the electric system as evidenced by power outages in Chicago, New York, New Orleans and other regions of the country last summer.

 

    "The Energy Department can more than double the energy savings achieved with today's agreement and reduce the likelihood of future power blackouts by setting a strong new air conditioner standard," said Andrew DeLaski, executive director of the Appliance Standards Awareness Project, who took part in the negotiations.

 

    The new clothes washer efficiency standards would be phased in starting in 2004 and affect all new washers sold in the United States. By 2007, energy use by washers would be cut by about half. Water use would also be cut, saving trillions of gallons by 2030. The Department of Energy (DOE) is expected to issue the new standards by the end of this year.

 

The proposal would create stricter criteria for Energy Star labeling of washers and refrigerators

 

    "This is a significant victory for the environment," said deLaski. "The water savings will reach up to 11 trillion gallons, meaning less water needs to be pumped from America's aquifers and rivers, and less strain on already overtaxed water and sewer systems."

 

    The energy savings will reach more than four quadrillion Btus - equivalent to the annual energy use of about 21 million households - meaning less fuel needs to be burned to generate electricity and heat water. This in turn will reduce local and regional air pollution and cuts emissions of the gases causing global warming.

 

    The agreement is expected to cut carbon dioxide emissions by up to 310 million metric tons over the next 30 years. Carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas released from burning coal, oil and natural gas, is considered one of the main culprits in global climate change.

 

    "This agreement demonstrates in practical terms how policies that cut global warming pollution need not harm the economy, as pessimists have argued," says Dan Lashof, a senior scientist at the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC).

 

    To encourage even higher levels of efficiency than required by the standards, public interest groups joined manufacturers in supporting tax credits for highly efficient washers and refrigerators.

 

    Over the 2001 through 2006 period covered by the proposed tax credits, a manufacturer could receive up to $30 million in credits in each of two efficiency categories.

 

Energy Star labels allow consumers to buy the most efficient appliances on the market.

 

    "The tax credits will speed up the production of state of the art products, providing additional energy and water savings while helping manufacturers to offset their investment costs. We urge the Congress to enact these tax credits this year," said ACEEE’s Geller.

 

    "Whirlpool endorses this historic agreement that not only represents a significant advancement in energy efficiency, but will also benefit the environment," said Jeff Fettig, president and COO of Whirlpool Corporation, a major appliance manufacturer. "Whirlpool is uniquely positioned to deliver on these consumer savings and benefits. And, as a global company we plan to use our global product development and technology capabilities to develop both clothes washers and refrigerators that exceed the new energy efficiency levels in exchange for the tax credit we hope to receive as a part of this agreement."

 

    The agreement was also endorsed by the Maytag Company and by GE Corporation. All three companies are already producing some highly efficient appliances.

 

For information:  513-947-4100 800-482-2726.  "Consumers don’t have to wait to make their washers greener and cheaper," said David Goldstein, NRDC’s Energy Program director and a chief negotiator for the new efficiency agreement. "Products that meet the 2007 standard already are available, and can be identified by the Energy Star label."  Information received from Environment  News Service. http://ens.lycos.com/ens/may2000/2000L-05-23-06.html

 

More information on Energy Star rated products is available at: http://www.energystar.gov

 

                                                            Very Respectfully,

 

                                                             BRUCE WAYNE HENION

 

 

ENERGY QUEST ENCYCLOPEDIA'S ENERGY EFFICIENT DEVICES/ PRODUCTS:

 

PERPETUATION OF OUR FREE ENTERPRISE SYSTEM

 

Energy Quest Encyclopedia's Energy Efficient Devices/Products Recommended Renewable Technologies/Energy Efficient Investment Tax Credits

 

 "Energy Quest" (EQ)

 

 "EQ" will be a book of the most productive renewable/energy efficient devices/products on the market today.

 

2.  “EQ" recommended retail cost of each volume (A to Z):   $49.95.  Tax       

       deductible upon purchase.

 

Chapters will be designated by device/products (i.e., windmill, solar panels, solar reflectors, solar hot water heaters,

carburetor technology, energy efficient human ingenuity, etc.).

 

 “EQ” should have all devices/products listed within its structure evaluated for their productivity by the “Underwriters

Laboratory,” and these devices/products will be guaranteed.

 

Appropriate Technologies and Sustainable Developments utilizing renewable energy resources thereby introducing energy

efficient devices/products below are an overview of related chapters within “EQ”:

 

Solar Salt Ponds

Wind Generation

Bioenergy - Biomethanation - Biomass technologies such as Ethanol, Methanol, Biodiesel and Sympathetic Vibratory

Physics - Keely’s Etheric Vapor with acoustic stimulation and Mr. Yull Brown’s Brown Gas.

Energy Efficient Engines (Bourke) and Carburetor technologies (providing there can be future technologies guaranteeing

at least a 50 percent increase in gas mileage with effective horsepower to run a engine productively).

Electric cars operated with batteries and or photovoltaic cells

Airplanes with photovoltaic cells

Photovoltaics

Solar Radiation and thermal Systems

Solar/Hybridization of diesel generators with solar

Passive Affordable Solar Designs and Strategies for Homes in order to reduce and receive energy from the sun

Energy Efficient Appliances and Devices

Solar lights

Solar Hot Water Heaters

Solar Panels

Solar Reflectors

Solar Mirrors

Off Grid Living

Waste Vitrification transforming waste materials into chemically durable, environmentally safe products rather then land

fills, generating electricity as an added bonus and Vitrification International Technologies, Inc. (EnerWaste) waste

facilities meet State and Federal EPA standards.  EnerWaste vitrification technologies have been adapted to properly

dispose of municipal incinerator ash, municipal sold waste, medical wastes, contaminated soils, several hazardous wastes

and even radioactive sludge’s and combustible wastes containing heavy metals and organics.

Geothermal Energy devices/products

Wind Sails for Ships (Green Peace)

Solar Powered Space Ships and Plains in Space

Ocean Exploration

Batteries capable of lasting 2 to 5 years properly maintained, receiving energy from the sun/electricity (eventually even

electricity will have a renewable source for its foundation)

Devices/products which can be placed with other energy efficient devices/products once distributed within “EQ” that

will enhance a device energy efficiency

Water turbines designed to function in rivers, creeks, etc., generating electric energy

Human ingenuity made into mass production such as decorative aluminum devices affixed to the outer basement wall

with special installation, which would be designed to create heat from the sun.  Such a device/product could be placed

around the basement of a house (drawing heat into and under the house) or around the structure of a specially designated

building.  The end result would be to channel temperature variations to a principle residence upstairs via the ventilation

system.  Beer cans painted black and nailed on a screen isn’t that decorative but effective.

 

3.  Once “EQ” is produced/distributed, the following energy Investment Tax Credits will assist consumers and businesses greatly.  Percentages are recommendations altering past ITC’s.

 

            A.  Residential Renewable Energy Credit.  Forty percent on the amount invested by a homeowner in active solar, certain passive solar components, wind, photovoltaics and energy efficient engines or carburetors technologies, electric cars, etc.

 

Twenty percent on the amount invested when purchasing Equipment used for residential space heating, electrical or

mechanical applications (maximum credit of $4,000).

 

Residential Energy Conservation Credit. Provides a 25 percent credit for specified energy-conserving home improvements,

such as insulation, weather-stripping, energy-efficient furnace replacement burners, etc., up to $15,000.00 invested (for a

maximum credit of $25,000.00 if energy reduction can be proven 50% or greater.

 

Business/Industrial Renewable Energy Investment Tax Credit.  Provides a 25 percent Investment Tax Credit (ITC) for solar,

wind or geothermal equipment that contributes to an industrial process.

 

Business/Industrial Biomass Development Credit. Provides a 30 percent ITC for bioenergy/Biomethanation/Biomass

technologies and or device adaptations that contribute to an industrial process.

 

Business/Industrial Alcohol Fuels Production Credit.  Provides a 15 percent tax credit for the research investment into

refined fuels. 

 

4. The following support Renewable Energy Technologies:  National Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy                 

http://www.dcs.ncsu.edu/solar/dsire/dsire.cfm

 

B.  Utility Companies offer energy efficient incentives

 

C.  President Clinton's FY 2000 Budget for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency

 

D.  Oregon Residential Energy Tax Credit for renewable energy technologies and energy efficiency

 

E.  Appliances designed more efficient

 

Energy Quest: Encyclopedias Energy Efficient Devices/Products

Original Conception: 1982/1986

Second Revision: March 2001

Third Revision: June 15, 2002

Date Submitted for Copyright: July 20, 2002

Copyright Sought After: "Compilation and Additional Text."

 

 Energy Quest

Encyclopedia's Energy Efficient Devices/Products

 

A.            "Energy Quest" (EQ)

 

 "EQ" will be a book of the most productive renewable/energy efficient devices/products on the market today.

 

           A.  On the market today there are many books explaining in detail renewable/energy efficient devices.  EQ will avoid this perspective of communication, and only concentrate on Web Sites communicating Renewable Energy; Company and Business information; Installation Contractors; Current prices, Rebates and Discounts as per individual devices/products listed within various chapters, although there may be a very limited explanation to the effect necessary toward explaining operational intricacies (i.e., windmills produce how much electricity when placed in a 10 knot wind site); County Laws relating to installation or regulations; Tax Credits; and available Loans.

 

  2.  “EQ" recommended retail cost of each volume (A to Z):   $49.95.  Tax       

        deductible upon purchase.

 

Chapters will be designated by device/products (i.e., windmill, solar panels, solar reflectors, solar hot water heaters, carburetor technology, energy efficient human ingenuity, etc.).

 

 “EQ” should have all devices/products listed within its structure evaluated for their productivity by the “Underwriters Laboratory,” and these devices/products will be guaranteed.

 

Appropriate Technologies and Sustainable Developments utilizing renewable energy resources thereby introducing energy efficient devices/products below are an overview of related chapters within “EQ”:

 

Solar Salt Ponds

Wind Generation

Bioenergy - Biomethanation - Biomass technologies such as Ethanol, Methanol, Biodiesel and Sympathetic Vibratory Physics - Keely’s Etheric Vapor with acoustic stimulation and Mr. Yull Brown’s Brown Gas.

Energy Efficient Engines (Bourke) and Carburetor technologies (providing there can be future technologies guaranteeing at least a 50 percent increase in gas mileage with effective horsepower to run a engine productively).

Electric cars operated with batteries and or photovoltaic cells

Airplanes with photovoltaic cells

Photovoltaics

Solar Radiation and thermal Systems

Solar/Hybridization of diesel generators with solar

Passive Affordable Solar Designs and Strategies for Homes in order to reduce and receive energy from the sun

Energy Efficient Appliances and Devices

Solar lights

Solar Hot Water Heaters

Solar Panels

Solar Reflectors

Solar Mirrors

Off Grid Living

Waste Vitrification transforming waste materials into chemically durable, environmentally safe products rather then land fills, generating electricity as an added bonus and Vitrification International Technologies, Inc. (EnerWaste) waste facilities meet State and Federal EPA standards.  EnerWaste vitrification technologies have been adapted to properly dispose of municipal

incinerator ash, municipal sold waste, medical wastes, contaminated soils, several hazardous wastes and even radioactive sludge’s and combustible wastes containing heavy metals and organics.

Geothermal Energy devices/products

Wind Sails for Ships (Green Peace)

Solar Powered Space Ships and Plains in Space

Ocean Exploration

Batteries capable of lasting 2 to 5 years properly maintained, receiving energy from the sun/electricity (eventually even electricity will have a renewable source for its foundation)

Devices/products which can be placed with other energy efficient devices/products once distributed within “EQ” that will enhance a device energy efficiency

Water turbines designed to function in rivers, creeks, etc., generating electric energy

Human ingenuity made into mass production such as decorative aluminum devices affixed to the outer basement wall with special installation, which would be designed to create heat from the sun.  Such a device/product could be placed around the basement of a house (drawing heat into and under the house) or around the structure of a specially designated building.  The end result would be to channel temperature variations to a principle residence upstairs via the ventilation system.  Beer cans painted black and nailed on a screen isn’t that decorative but effective.

 

3.  Once “EQ” is produced/distributed, the following energy Investment Tax Credits will assist consumers and businesses greatly.  Percentages are recommendations altering past ITC’s.

 

            A.  Residential Renewable Energy Credit.  Forty percent on the amount invested by a homeowner in active solar, certain passive solar components, wind, photovoltaics and energy efficient engines or carburetors technologies, electric cars, etc.

 

Twenty percent on the amount invested when purchasing Equipment used for residential space heating, electrical or mechanical applications (maximum credit of $4,000).

 

Residential Energy Conservation Credit. Provides a 25 percent credit for specified energy-conserving home improvements, such as insulation, weather-stripping, energy-efficient furnace replacement burners, etc., up to $15,000.00 invested (for a maximum credit of $25,000.00 if energy reduction can be proven 50% or greater.

 

Business/Industrial Renewable Energy Investment Tax Credit.  Provides a 25 percent Investment Tax Credit (ITC) for solar, wind or geothermal equipment that contributes to an industrial process.

 

Business/Industrial Biomass Development Credit. Provides a 30 percent ITC for bioenergy/Biomethanation/Biomass technologies and or device adaptations that contribute to an industrial process.

 

Business/Industrial Alcohol Fuels Production Credit.  Provides a 15 percent tax credit for the research investment into refined fuels. 

 

4.  The following support Renewable Energy Technologies:  National Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy

http://www.dcs.ncsu.edu/solar/dsire/dsire.cfm

 

    A.  Energy Efficient Building Incentives Act (S.207):  The following text reflects the highlights of the act, that was re-introduced on January 30, 2001 by Senator Bob Smith (R-N.H.), chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee.  If enacted, the Energy Efficient Building Incentives Act (S.207) will provide tax credits for energy efficient technology in buildings.

    Reflecting similar proposals under consideration in the states to reduce energy consumption in buildings, the legislation would provide a tax credit for energy efficient technology used during construction of a building or installed for later use.

    The legislation would target energy related technologies including photovoltaic equipment, solar hot water heaters, and Tier 1 and Tier 2 energy efficient property.

What is proposed:

Solar hot water property is eligible for a tax credit equal to $1.00 per kwh/year.

Photovoltaic property is eligible for a credit of $4.50 per peak watt.

Tier 1 energy efficient property is eligible for a credit of $750,

Tier 2 properties, being more efficient, are eligible for a larger credit of $1,500.

Installation of super-efficient and expensive natural gas heat pumps would qualify for a $3,000 tax credit.

    Tier 1 energy efficient property includes efficient electric heat pumps, air conditioners, and natural gas water heaters.

    Tier 2 equipment is eligible for a larger credit and includes natural gas water heaters, electric heat pump hot water heaters, electric heat pumps, central air conditioners, and natural gas heat pumps.

    Energy efficient commercial buildings are also eligible for tax credits on a per square foot basis if the total annual energy and power costs with respect to the lighting, heating, cooling, ventilation, and hot water supply systems exceed the performance of a qualified reference building by 50 percent or more.

    Cosponsors of this year’s bill include Senators Dianne Feinstein (D-Calif), Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.), John Kerry (D-Mass), Susan Collins (R-Me.), Olympia Snowe (R-Me.) and Jesse Helms (R-N.C.). Smith is trying to have the legislation wrapped into the GOP energy package.

    The full text of the bill is available at thomas web site http://thomas.loc.gov/ . Select "Bill Summary", then "107", then search for Bill/Amendment Number "S.207".  Information received from altenergy.com http://altenergy.about.com/industry/altenergy/library/refs/bl_fedacts207.htm?iam=dpile&terms=%2Benergy+%2Befficient+%2Btax+%2Bcredits

 

    B.  Utility Companies offer energy efficient incentives:

 

    PGE rebates and low interest rates for homeowners and rental property owners:

Up to a $350 cash rebate per residence, or a 6.5 percent loan on ceiling, wall and floor insulation and heating duct insulation and sealing.

If you heat with electricity, PGE offers you either a cash rebate of up to $350 per residence, or a 6.5 percent APR low-interest loan to make PGE-recommended energy efficiency home improvements. To find out how much your energy bill and personal comfort might benefit from adding home insulation or air sealing, call PGE's Home Energy Hotline at 800-722-9287. While you're at it, ask about PGE's free Home Energy Evaluation.

$25 cash rebate on a new energy-efficient electric water heater

If you have an old electric water heater, PGE offers a $25 water heater rebate to purchase a new energy-efficient model. To learn more about where to buy energy-efficient electric water heaters, call PGE's Home Energy Hotline at 800-722-9287 or web site at: http://www.portlandgeneral.com

9.9 percent loan on a new energy-efficiency electric water heater

PGE offers customers with approved credit this low-interest loan through participating water heater dealers. Call PGE's Home Energy Hotline at 800-722-9287 for list of participating dealers.

 

 President Clinton's FY 2000 Budget For Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency:

 

 PROVIDE TAX CREDIT FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT BUILDING EQUIPMENT

 

    Current Law

 

    No income tax credit is provided currently for investment in energy-efficient building equipment.

 

    Reasons for Change

 

    A credit for types of building equipment that are substantially more energy efficient than conventional equipment will help to accelerate the development and distribution of energy-efficient technologies. A credit would reduce costs to consumers, increasing demand for the equipment and reducing manufacturing costs, while also spurring technological innovation and reducing energy consumption.

 

    Proposal:

 

    A credit of 10 percent of the purchase price (up to a maximum of $250 per unit) would be allowed for the purchase after December 31, 1999 and before January 1, 2002 of the following building equipment:

 

Electric heat pumps (equipment using electrically powered vapor compression cycles to extract heat from air in one space and deliver it to air in another space) with a heating efficiency of at least 9 HSPF (Heating Seasonal Performance Factor) and a cooling efficiency of at least 13.5 SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating).

Central air conditioners with an efficiency of at least 13.5 SEER.

Advanced natural gas water heaters (equipment using a variety of mechanisms to increase steady-state efficiency and reduce standby and vent losses) with an Energy Factor of at least 0.65 in the standard Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure.

    A credit of 20 percent of the purchase price would be allowed for the purchase after December 31, 1999 and before January 1, 2004 of the following building equipment:

Fuel cells (equipment using an electrochemical process to generate electricity and heat) with an electricity-only generation efficiency of at least 35 percent and a minimum generating capacity of 5 kilowatts. The maximum credit would be $500 per kilowatt of capacity.

Electric heat pump hot water heaters (equipment using electrically powered vapor compression cycles to extract heat from air and deliver it to a hot water storage tank) with an Energy Factor of at least 1.7 in the standard DOE test procedure. The maximum credit would be $500 per unit.

Electric heat pumps with a heating efficiency of at least 9 HSPF and a cooling efficiency of at least 15 SEER. The maximum credit would be $500 per unit.

Central air conditioners with an efficiency of at least 15 SEER. The maximum credit would be $500 per unit.

Advanced natural gas water heaters with an Energy Factor of at least 0.80 in the standard DOE test procedure. The maximum credit would be $500 per unit.

 

 

Natural gas heat pumps (equipment using either a gas-absorption cycle or a gas-driven engine to power the vapor compression cycle to extract heat from one source and deliver it to another) with a coefficient of performance for heating of at least 1.25 and for cooling of at least 0.70. The maximum credit would be $1,000 per unit.

    A credit would be allowed only for final purchases from unrelated third parties. The credit would be nonrefundable. Credits for equipment used for business purposes would be subject to the limitations on the general business credit and would reduce the basis of the equipment.

 

TAX CREDIT FOR PURCHASE OF ENERGY EFFICIENT NEW HOMES

 

    Current law

 

    No deductions or credits are provided currently for the purchase of energy-efficient new homes.

 

    Reasons for change

 

    Residences, which account for about one-sixth of all U.S. greenhouse gases, offer one of the largest single sources of carbon saving potential. Some States and certain Federal programs require new houses to meet Model Energy Code standards for insulation and related construction standards, and for heating, cooling and hot water equipment. By the use of cost-effective means, many new homes could reduce energy consumption by 30 to 50 percent or more compared to the standards in the Model Energy Code or the more recent 1998 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). A targeted credit for such highly energy-efficient new housing could increase the use of energy-efficient building practices and efficient heating and cooling equipment. In addition, it may help spur innovation in the ways that houses are designed and built, thereby providing significant energy-saving and environmental benefits over the long term.

 

    Proposal:

 

    A tax credit of up to $2,000 would be available to purchasers of highly energy-efficient new homes that meet energy-efficiency standards for heating, cooling and hot water that significantly exceed those of the IECC. A taxpayer may claim the credit only if the new home is the taxpayer’s principal residence and reduces energy use by prescribed amounts as compared to the IECC for single family residences.

    The tax credit would be $1,000 for new homes that are at least 30 percent more energy efficient than the IECC standard, and that are purchased in the two-year period beginning January 1, 2000 and ending December 31, 2001. The tax credit would be $1,500 for new homes that are at least 40 percent more energy efficient than the IECC standard, and purchased in the three-year period beginning January 1, 2000 and ending December 31, 2002. The tax credit would be $2,000 for new homes that are at least 50 percent more energy efficient than the IECC standard, and purchased in the five-year period beginning January 1, 2000 and ending December 31, 2004.  Information received from Energy Efficiency Equipment & Homes. http://www.serve.com/commonpurpose/congress/efficiency.html

 

Oregon Residential Energy Tax Credit - You can get a credit on your Oregon income taxes for making your home more energy-efficient and helping preserve Oregon’s environment. Tax credits are available for:

 

Appliances

 

Premium-efficiency dishwashers, clothes washers, and water heating systems are eligible for a tax credit ranging from $50 to more than $200. The model must be on the Oregon Office of Energy list of certified premium-efficiency appliances. The tax credit is based on the amount of energy saved above standard models and your net purchase price.

 

No refrigerators will qualify for the tax credit during the first part of 2001. Oregon raised specifications for refrigerators to exceed new federal standards, which will increase by 30 percent mid-year. Models that meet Oregon's new specifications likely will be available from manufacturers later in the year.

 

A few of the least efficient Energy Star® clothes washers no longer qualify for the tax credit. Tax credit amounts for some other models are slightly different. The tax credit program is using a new U.S. Department of Energy test procedure that accounts for energy savings resulting from improved spin cycles. Oregon also is using slightly different specifications for larger vs. smaller models.

 

Manufacturers are adding qualifying dishwasher models regularly. Note: Not all Energy Star models qualify. Manufacturers also are adding new water heating systems periodically.

 

Very efficient central, split-system air conditioning systems now qualify for the tax credit. Models with a Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) of 15 or higher and an Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) of 13 or higher qualify. The tax credit for these central air conditioning systems is the amount listed on the Office of Energy qualifying equipment list or 25 percent of the net purchase price, whichever is less.

 

Heat recovery and energy recovery ventilation systems now qualify for the tax credit. They provide balanced ventilation for homes on a continuous (or semi-continuous) basis without the energy loss associated with other ventilation strategies. Typically, a trained heating, ventilating and air conditioning contractor designs and installs these systems. Both collect stale air from kitchens and bathrooms and exhaust it outside. At the same time, fresh outdoor air is filtered, warmed by heat transferred from exhaust air, then delivered to bedrooms or main living areas. Energy recovery systems offer an additional benefit: They transfer moisture between incoming and outgoing air flows to help maintain healthy humidity levels inside. The tax credit for ventilation systems is the amount listed on the Office of Energy qualifying equipment list or 25 percent of the net purchase price, whichever is less.

 

Testing and Servicing Heat Pumps and Central Air Conditioning Systems

 

The Oregon Office of Energy has a tax credit for testing heat pump and central air conditioning systems and servicing them for optimal performance. When a certified contractor performs work, you get a 25 percent tax credit for eligible costs, up to $250. (Duct testing and sealing also is eligible for a 25 percent tax credit, up to $250.) Call the Office of Energy to find out if contractors in your area are certified to perform testing and servicing.

 

Premium Efficiency Ducts

 

As much as 25 percent of the heat from a forced-air heating system may be lost through leaks in the ductwork. You can get a tax credit for sealing existing ductwork or installing a well-designed and sealed duct system in a new home. The tax credit is 25 percent of the cost of the work, up to $250.  A contractor certified by the Oregon Office of Energy must perform work.

Geothermal Space Heating

 

Geothermal heat pumps are three times more efficient in heating your home than baseboard electric heaters. A tax credit of up to $1,500 is available for installing the necessary ground-loop heat exchanger.

 

Solar Water Heating

 

You can get a tax credit of up to $1,500 for buying a solar water heating system for your home. Oregon's certified solar contractors can pre-approve your tax credit. Be sure to get an OG300-certified system that meets the Oregon Solar Energy Industry Association tank standard.

 

Solar Space Heating

 

A solar space heating system that meets at least 10 percent of the home's total energy requirements is eligible for a tax credit of up to $1,500. The tax credit may offset the additional cost of improved design, thermal storage and superior windows.

 

Solar Electricity

 

A solar photovoltaic system that meets at least 10 percent of the home's total energy requirements is eligible for a tax credit of up to $1,500.

 

Wastewater Heat Recovery

 

Use the waste heat from showers and other hot water uses to cut energy use for water heating by 8 to 12 percent. Wastewater heat recovery systems also can eliminate cold showers. Qualifying models are eligible for a tax credit or $80 to $120 depending on energy savings, not to exceed 25 percent of the cost. You need at least 4 feet of vertical drainpipe from the shower or on the main water drain. You can install the system yourself or hire a plumber. Some installation costs are eligible.

 

Solar Electric AC Modules

 

Solar electric alternating current (AC) modules are eligible for the tax credit. They include an inverter that converts direct current to alternating current (what household appliances run on). Some of the modules also include a system to store the electricity for use when the sun isn't shining. Common uses for the modules include outdoor lighting, fans, operating gates, and charging batteries and electric fences. The tax credit for modules on the Office of Energy qualifying equipment list is $2 per peak Watt or 25 percent of the net purchase price, whichever is less.

 

Wind Systems

 

You can produce electricity with a wind system and get a tax credit of 60 cents per estimated kWh saved during the first year, up to $1,500. Qualifying costs include wind measuring equipment, turbines, towers, associated components, engineering costs, utility interconnection equipment and installation. You will need wind information for your location and calculations showing how much energy your expect to produce. The wind system must meet at least 10 percent of the total energy requirements of the home.

 

Fuel Cells

 

Fuel cells work like batteries, but run on fuel, almost any kind. They take hydrogen from the fuel and combine it with oxygen, making an electric current in the process. Because they don't burn the fuel and are super-efficient, the only by-products are water, heat and a little CO2. Fuel cells are now entering the residential market. You can use them to make electricity and heat your home and water and get a tax credit of 60 cents per estimated kWh saved during the first year, up to $1,500. The fuel cell system must have a minimum rated stack capacity of 0.5 kilowatts and a minimum rated system capacity of 10 kilowatts.

 

Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

 

You can get a tax credit of up to $750 for buying an alternative-fuel fuel vehicle or converting a vehicle to use an alternative fuel. Qualifying fuels include electricity, natural gas, ethanol, propane and others. You can get an additional tax credit of up to $750 for the charging or fueling system.

 

The Oregon Residential Energy Tax Credit brochure (http://www.energy.state.or.us/res/tax/retcbro.pdf (pdf) explains how you'll save on energy bills and how to apply for the credit. Contact The Oregon Office of Energy with any questions at (503-378-4040 in Salem or 1-800-221-8035 toll-free in Oregon).

 

The Energy Note Buying and Using Home Appliances at http://www.energy.state.or.us/res/appnote.pdf explains how to use your appliances efficiently to reduce your utility bills, maintain your appliances to keep them operating longer and with fewer repairs and look for energy-saving features on new appliances.

 

    E.  Appliances designed more efficient:

 

     By Cat Lazaroff

 

     “WASHINGTON, DC, May 23, 2000 (ENS) - Appliance manufacturers, energy efficiency advocates and public officials announced an agreement today to improve the energy efficiency of household appliances. The agreement, covering clothes washers and refrigerators, is the result of months of negotiations between appliance manufacturers and a broad coalition of public interest advocates.

 

    A typical family now spends about $200 per year on energy, water, and detergent for doing laundry. The new standards would cut the average bill by about $75 a year.

 

    "America's laundry load will get a lot lighter thanks to this agreement," said Howard Geller, executive director of the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) and a participant in the negotiations. "Specifically, the agreement will reduce the load on consumers' wallets, the load on utility power plants and water systems, and the load on the environment."

    The agreement includes joint recommendations for new minimum efficiency standards for clothes washers, tax credits for manufacturers who produce washers or refrigerators that exceed the efficiency standards, and new, higher qualification levels for these products to obtain the voluntary Energy Star label designation.

 

    "The clothes washer standards that manufacturers have agreed to will reduce hot water use and the total energy consumption associated with clothes washers by about one third. As a result, consumers will cut their energy, water and detergent purchases by over $25 billion during the next 30 years," said Geller.

 

    The new clothes washer standard is one of several standards the DOE has committed to upgrade this year. The DOE proposed new standards for water heaters last month and is expected to propose new central air conditioner standards this summer. Improving air conditioner efficiency is particularly important because of the strain cooling equipment places on the electric system as evidenced by power outages in Chicago, New York, New Orleans and other regions of the country last summer.

 

    "The Energy Department can more than double the energy savings achieved with today's agreement and reduce the likelihood of future power blackouts by setting a strong new air conditioner standard," said Andrew DeLaski, executive director of the Appliance Standards Awareness Project, who took part in the negotiations.

 

    The new clothes washer efficiency standards would be phased in starting in 2004 and affect all new washers sold in the United States. By 2007, energy use by washers would be cut by about half. Water use would also be cut, saving trillions of gallons by 2030. The Department of Energy (DOE) is expected to issue the new standards by the end of this year.

 

The proposal would create stricter criteria for Energy Star labeling of washers and refrigerators.

 

    "This is a significant victory for the environment," said deLaski. "The water savings will reach up to 11 trillion gallons, meaning less water needs to be pumped from America's aquifers and rivers, and less strain on already overtaxed water and sewer systems."

    The energy savings will reach more than four quadrillion Btus - equivalent to the annual energy use of about 21 million households - meaning less fuel needs to be burned to generate electricity and heat water. This in turn will reduce local and regional air pollution and cuts emissions of the gases causing global warming.

 

    The agreement is expected to cut carbon dioxide emissions by up to 310 million metric tons over the next 30 years. Carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas released from burning coal, oil and natural gas, is considered one of the main culprits in global climate change.

 

    "This agreement demonstrates in practical terms how policies that cut global warming pollution need not harm the economy, as pessimists have argued," says Dan Lashof, a senior scientist at the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC).

 

    To encourage even higher levels of efficiency than required by the standards, public interest groups joined manufacturers in supporting tax credits for highly efficient washers and refrigerators.

 

    Over the 2001 through 2006 period covered by the proposed tax credits, a manufacturer could receive up to $30 million in credits in each of two efficiency categories.

 

    Energy Star labels allow consumers to buy the most efficient appliances on the market.

 

    "The tax credits will speed up the production of state of the art products, providing additional energy and water savings while helping manufacturers to offset their investment costs. We urge the Congress to enact these tax credits this year," said ACEEE’s Geller.

 

    "Whirlpool endorses this historic agreement that not only represents a significant advancement in energy efficiency, but will also benefit the environment," said Jeff Fettig, president and COO of Whirlpool Corporation, a major appliance manufacturer. "Whirlpool is uniquely positioned to deliver on these consumer savings and benefits. And, as a global company we plan to use our global product development and technology capabilities to develop both clothes washers and refrigerators that exceed the new energy efficiency levels in exchange for the tax credit we hope to receive as a part of this agreement."

 

    The agreement was also endorsed by the Maytag Company and by GE Corporation. All three companies are already producing some highly efficient appliances.

 

For information:  513-947-4100 800-482-2726.  "Consumers don’t have to wait to make their washers greener and cheaper," said David Goldstein, NRDC’s Energy Program director and a chief negotiator for the new efficiency agreement. "Products that meet the 2007 standard already are available, and can be identified by the Energy Star label."  Information received from Environment  News Service. http://ens.lycos.com/ens/may2000/2000L-05-23-06.html

 

More information on Energy Star rated products is available at: http://www.energystar.gov

                                                            Very Respectfully,

 

                                                             BRUCE WAYNE HENION

 

 

 

RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES May 6, 2001

 

 

U. S. Senate

Washington, D.C. 20510-3704

 

    Dear Senator Gordon Smith:

 

    We the people, by the people, shall peacefully cause change and report to our elected officials those concerns we have in relationship to our country.  The very principals of our fore fathers carried on from generation to generation.  The American people and citizens of the world are rapidly entering a new millennium.  You yourself may never read this letter, but Americans will and they will one day write there own letter, addressing renewable energy technologies to you and other elected officials.   How does the U. S. government intend to support and invest in renewable energy technologies?  No tax incentives (deductions or credits) are provided for renewable energy technology investment for the purchase of energy-efficient new homes or in energy-efficient building equipment.  President Clinton's President Clinton's FY 2000 Budget For Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency must be supported.  Not having investment incentives for renewable energy and energy efficiency sends a clear message to citizens of America and the world; the U. S. Government has no desire to change.  How can our nation, leading the world in many technologies, illustrate to other countries, proper leadership, investing pennies on the dollar in renewable energy technologies?  The U. S. Of America is depleting worldwide fossil fuels more rapidly then any other country.

 

    Petroleum makes up 42% of the total U. S. energy consumption.

 

    The United States imports 25% of the total fossil fuel consumed in our economy (half of the necessary petroleum consumed) and 25% of the total fossil fuel consumed throughout the world on an annual basses.  The U. S. population is 4.7% of the world's population.  Approximately 260 billion dollars annually is spent on Fossil fuel costs with 65 billion dollars allocated to foreign fossil fuel suppliers.  Population of the United States is projected to double to more than one-half billion within the next 60 years (USBC 19921).  Due to increased energy requirements for the growth of the U. S. and a rapidly dwindling oil supply, by 2010 coal may constitute as much as 40% of total energy use (DOE 1991a).

 

    Coal extraction will not be energy cost-effective, as the energy input required to power these methods approaches the amount of energy mined.  The equipment required for coal extraction takes years to build and multi millions of dollars.  A typical rig can cost as high as 40 million dollars.  Monster rigs with computerized accuracy and efficiency have replaced the crawlers of yesterday.  Monster rigs that are powered by high volts of electricity operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week.  With more reliance on coal only a decade away, renewable energy technologies must have government support and investment by our government, private and corporate sectors.  Fossil fuel combustion - carbon dioxide - global warming - environmental damage.  Global warming concerns will undoubtedly discourage further investment in coal mining.

 

    The projected availability of all fossil fuels is what?  Twenty to fifty years?  U. S. Petroleum imports is projected to increase to 100% within 10 to 15 years (DOE 1991a), with the U. S. demand greater each year.  Ethanol, methanol and hydrogen liquid fuels must substitute fossil fuels (oil), accompanied with more efficient engines and carburetors.  Electric cars powered by batteries and photovoltaics.  Renewable energy technologies require land.  Presently renewable energy technologies provide 8% of the U. S. energy resources.  Exploitation of renewable energy resources must increase 15% annually throughout the world as fossil fuel energy supplies dwindle.

 

WIND GENERATION TECHNOLOGIES

 

    Wind Power Energy is safe, abundant, efficient and cost effective.  The weather and Avian Issues are possibly the only stumbling blocks facing the wind energy generation industry.   Wind energy has been one of the fastest growing and most advanced energy technologies in the world, with an annual growth of 20% per annum over the last decade.  The total installed capacity around the world is expected to be 33.400MW by the end of 2003 and further growth is driven by deregulation, consumer demand for electrical resources and green certificate trading.  Wind energy in association with other renewable energies will continue to reduce carbon dioxide and monoxide by providing a clean source of sustainable diversified energy resources.

 

    "90% of the world's wind turbine manufacturers are European, with a combined annual turnover of more than one billion EUROs.  The installed capacity in Europe has increased by about 40% per year in the past six years. Today wind energy projects across Europe produce enough electricity to meet the domestic needs of 5 million people. The wind energy industry has set a goal for 60,000 MW of wind energy capacity to be installed by 2010, which would provide electricity of about 75 million people.  In 1991 the EWEA calculated that the development of wind energy on a European basis at a responsible rate would yield 4,000 MW by the by the year 2000.  The end of 1997 4,600 MW wind energy capacity was installed in Europe and 8,000 MW by the year 2000.  More than 9,500 MW were installed in Europe before the end of 1999.  In 1997, the EWEA set a target of 40,000 MW installed capacity by the year 2010. In September 2000, it decided to increase the target for 2010 to 60,000MW to reflect the past rates of growth, as reported by EWEA. http://www.ewea.org/src/europe.htm

 

    Operating wind farms in the United Kingdom, a total of 60 projects with more expected in the future, supply electricity to 256,310 homes or a total of 405.6 megawatts (853 turbines).  These projects are listed at BWEA web page http://www.britishwindenergy.co.uk

 

    "January 18, 2001 plans for the construction of the world's largest wind plant at Oregon-Washington border was announced by PacifiCorp.   FPL Energy, LLC, will build, own, and operate a new 300-megawatt wind facility along the Washington-Oregon border southwest of Walla Walla, Washington. The facility will be the world's largest, called the Stateline Wind Generating Project. It will draw on 450 wind turbines to produce enough power for 70,000 homes. PacifiCorp Power Marketing Inc. throughout the West will sell the power. Most of the facility should be producing power by the end of 2001. (iwr)."

 

    "US Energy Secretary Bill Richardson said that the government would build the country's second-largest power facility near Las Vegas, a move that will boost energy supplies in Nevada and neighboring California.  Reuters published this information January 23, 2001. The project was announced as some California residents found themselves without lights or power because of rolling blackouts. As demand for power continues to increase in California, Nevada and elsewhere, additional sources of electricity must be developed. The new power supply is cleaner and does not emit pollutants like coal. The wind-powered facility, to be located near the California border, will generate 260 megawatts a day when completed in 2004. It is enough power for 260,000 people.  The first phase of the project will be completed by the end of this year and will generate 85 megawatts per day. (iwr)"

 

    World's largest wind plants scheduled for the northwest of the U. S. articles and other wind related topics are maintained by the European Wind Research Group. http://www.unimuenster.de/Energie/wind/Welcomee.html

 

 

BIOMASS EXPLOITATION

 

 

    Biomass energy production is environmentally more polluting than gas but less than coal, with more then 100 different chemical pollutants into the atmosphere (Alfheim and Ramdahl 1986).  Electric generating plants that have efficient air-pollution control devices are able to reduce 70% of the following pollutants as a direct result from burning wood/grasses:

 

    Wood Smoke causes:  Bronchitis, Emphysema, and other illnesses.  Pollutants include up to 14 carcinogens, 4 cocarcinogens, 6 toxins that damage cilia, and additional mucus-coagulating agents (Alfheim and Ramdahl 1986, DOE 1980).  Relatively high concentrations of potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) PAHs, organic compounds such as benzo(a)pyrene) and particulars found in biomass smoke.  Sulfur and nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and aldehydes also are released in small though significant quantities and contribute to reduced air quality (DOE 1980).

 

    Several communities in the U. S., including Aspen, Colorado, have banned the burning of wood for heating homes.  When biomass is burned continuously in the home for heating, its pollutants can be a threat to human health (Lipfert et al. 1998, Smith 1978b).  Like many Americans, I burn wood in my home for heat as electrical power is expensive and my home is not energy efficient.  I like so many others, are at cross-purposes with the environment.  Camping without the enjoyment of the campfire seems extreme but we are introducing chemical pollutants into the atmosphere when we burn wood.  To increase biomass as a source of fuel in order to increase energy production is not reasonable or cost effective to the environment; especially when other renewable energy technologies can be exploited.

 

    Heavy machinery and equipment powered by fossil fuels is required in order to harvest biomass energy and fertilizers and pesticides diminish the net energy available.  Increased burning of trees for energy is most likely to be seen as harmful to our environment.  Maximal biomass production would require opening federal forest and wilderness lands for exploitation.  "The cost of producing a kilowatt of electricity from woody biomass ranges from 7 to 10 cents" (USBC 1992a).  "Agroforestry technologies are designed to protect the soil quality and conserve biodiversity."  An estimated 3.6 quads (1.1 x 10 18 Joules) or 4.2% of U. S. (USBC 1992) energy supply comes from biomass.  Thirty-three (33) liters of diesel fuel oil per hectare is expended by equipment designed for cutting, collecting and transporting wood, provided trucks traveled no more then 80-kilometer roundtrip from forest to plant.  During harvest, one hectare would yield an average of three (3) tons of (dry) woody biomass annually with small amounts of nutrient fertilizer inputs (Birdsey 1972).  Thirty-three tons of woody biomass has a gross energy yield of 13.5 million kcal (thermal).  Taking into consideration fossil fuel consumption of 33 liters in order to harvest thirty-three (33) tons of woody biomass, the actual energy yield would be less than 13.5 million kcal (thermal).  "A city of 100,000 people require 1 billion kWh (860 x 109) kcal = kWh) of electrical power per year.  In order to supply the electrical demand for food production, housing, industry, and roadways, 3 tons/ha or a combined total of 220,000 ha of forest area must be set aside for annual harvest for 100,000 people.

 

Ethanol/Methanol Liquid Fuels

 

    "Ethanol production requires raw materials from a wide range and variety of starch, sugar crops, food processing wastes, and woody materials (Lynd et al 1991)."  "In the United States, corn has proven to be the most widely utilized biomass feedstock in terms of feasibility, availability and technology (Pimentel 1991)."

 

    "The major energy input in ethanol production, approximately 40% overall, is fuel needed to run the distillation process (Pimentel 1991)."

 

    "Ethanol and methanol fuels release less carbon monoxide and sulfur oxides than gasoline and diesel fuels.  Other pollutants released into the atmosphere are associated with the burning of ethanol and increase carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, contributing to global warming, worsening the tropospheric ozone problem because of the emissions of nitrogen oxides from the richer mixtures used in the combustion engines.  The major pollutants are:  nitrogen, oxides, formaldehydes, aldehydes and alcohol.  (Sillman and Samson 1990)."

 

    "Various Raw materials such as natural gas, coal, wood, municipal solid waste and crops can be used to produce methanol.  Natural gas presently is the primary source of fuel for the production of methanol.  A suitably large methanol plant would require at least 1250 tons of dry biomass per day for processing.  More then 150,000 ha of forest would be needed to supply one plant.  Biomass generally is not available in such enormous quantities from extensive forests and at acceptable prices (ACTI 1983."

 

    "If methanol from biomass (33 quads) were used as a substitute for oil in the United States, from 250 to 430 million ha of land would be needed to supply the raw material.  This land area is greater than the 162 million ha of U. S. cropland now in production) USDA 1992)."  "Although methanol production from biomass may be impractical because of the enormous size of the conversion plants, it is significantly more efficient than ethanol production system based on energy output and economics (Kohl 1990)."

 

    Renewable power plants utilizing municipal solid waste, producing methanol fuel with anti-pollution devices, scrubbers, filters and controls seems the most likely course to explore.  Emissions can be processed, limiting pollutants and Vitrification International Technologies, Inc. (EnerWaste) have introduced technologies in municipal waste disposal, which decrease atmospheric pollutants, and I believe could provide technologies that will decrease methanol power plant emissions substantially.  Research grants and funding should be allocated to the leaders in municipal waste disposal technologies.

 

    We must recognize the enormous amount of raw materials required as fuel in order produce ethanol and methanol, harmful pollutants and enormous areas of land and raw materials required for large scale Ethanol and Methanol Power Plants.  Environmental damage to our forest and to much corn grown in order to supply the necessary fuel required to replace fossil fuels (Petroleum), would deplete crop lands of the nutrients and require more water then resources presently available to irrigate an additional 250 to 430 million ha of farm land.

 

    Small methanol plants designed for the dairy, poultry and pig industries is essential and must be designed by those leading the way, introducing technologies for a more friendly and sound environment.  Albany, Oregon Waste Water Disposal Treatment facility may have implemented similar equipment like the Albany/Corvallis landfill has, making use of methane rather then burning fumes which occurred on a daily bases in the past, pullulating the atmosphere. The municipal landfill site is filling up.  EnerWaste technologies should replace this landfill site. The following Web sites contain information relating Wastewater treatment facilities worldwide and Oregon environment:

 

Erik Schiff Waste treatment sources http://hometown.aol.com/ErikSchiff

 

The USGS provides maps, reports, and information to help others meet their needs to manage, develop, and protect America's water, energy, mineral, and land resources.

 http://water.usgs.gov/wid/html/or.html

 

    Methanol fuel production in small mom and pop operations on farms has successfully risen as a viable option yet anti-pollutant devices and applications must be introduced. Technologies must guarantee devices eliminating emissions of toxin pollutants into the atmosphere, with immediate reduction of the harmful chemicals.

 

    Renewable energy technologies harnessing renewable energy resources will never be depleted like fossil fuel and raw materials.  In fact, exploration of renewable energy technologies will far advance fossil fuel technologies and provide the United States Economy the energy necessary for continued growth.

 

    Teledyne Wah Chang, Albany, Oregon radioactive sludge should be disposed of through Vitrification technologies in municipal waste disposal and EnerWaste can do the job.  Why then must this sludge be hauled to the Columbia Gorge?  Is there a secret EnerWaste plant at the Columbia Gorge?

 

    In closing, I ask that you commit yourself and become aware of available renewable energy technologies that have potential beyond your imagination.  I do not assume you are not informed and can only pray your knowledge of renewable energy technologies are equal to or greater then those experts and leaders of renewable energy technologies.

 

    I have committed myself as others before me, to work hard for a better tomorrow, even though I may not be here in the future due to my disability.  I will continue to express those concerns in hopes that my effort accompanied with others will one day make an effort.  Renewable Energies: Economic and Environmental Issues published in BioScience, Vol. 44, No. 8, September 1994 is a bases for a greater understanding yet itself is 7 years old.  This article is accessible at http://dieoff.org/page84.htm  and accomplishes an easy read in-depth overview of Biomass, Ethanol, Methanol, Hydrogen, Hydroelectric Systems, Wind Power, Photovoltaics, Solar Thermal Conversion Systems, Solar Receiver Systems, Passive Heating, Comparing Solar Power to Nuclear Power, Transition to Solar Energy and other alternatives.  My knowledge of renewable energies is sufficient to exclaim positively be on a shadow of a doubt, renewable energy technologies is the future!

 

BRUCE WAYNE HENION

 

 

ENERGY QUEST HISTORY

 

EQ History and EQ NEEDF Letters: (1); (2); (3); (4); (5); (6) & (7) from 1979 to 2001 frozen in time

 

   

Energy Quest

Part IV of VII

 USS CORAL SEA (CV 43)

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw, A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy (August 1977 to February 1983)

 

A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy (August 1977 to February 1983) - Operation Evening Light and Eagle Claw - (24 April 1980)

 

Book - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0454-5

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-329-15473-5

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to Present)

 

Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to 2016)

 

Book ISBN NO.

To Be Announced

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-19945-3

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA  Vol. I (10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA Vol. I

(10 July 1944 to 31 December 1975)

 

Book ISBN NO.

To Be Announced

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54596-0

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II (1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. II

(1 January 1976 to 25 August 1981)

 

Book ISBN NO.

To Be Announced

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-54790-2

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III (20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990)

 

USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III

(20 August 1981 to 26 April 1990)

 

Book ISBN NO.

To Be Announced

EBook ISBN NO.

978-1-329-55111-4

 

USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) History Vol. I (27 December 1982 to 6 May 2003)

 

USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) History Vol. I  (27 December 1982 to 6 May 2003)

 

Book - ISBN NO.

To Be Announced

EBook - ISBN No.

978-1-365-73794-7

 

USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) History Vol. II (7 May 2003 to 13 January 2010)

 

USS Abraham Lincoln

(CVN-72) History Vol. II

(7 May 2003 to 13 January 2010)

 

Book - ISBN NO.

To Be Announced

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-365-74027-5

 

USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) History Vol. III (14 January 2010 to 31 December 2012)

 

 

USS Abraham Lincoln

(CVN-72) History Vol. III

(14 January 2010 to 31

December 2012)

 

Book - ISBN NO.

To Be Announced

EBook - ISBN No.

978-1-365-74145-6

 

USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) History of Refueling and Complex Overhaul (RCOH)  (1 January 2013 to 2017)

 

USS Abraham Lincoln

(CVN-72) History of

Refueling and Complex

Overhaul (RCOH)

(1 January 2013 to 2017

Sea Trials) Volume IV

 

Book - ISBN NO.

To Be Announced

EBook - ISBN No.

978-1-365-74587-4

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER SHIP HISTORY (1920 to 2016)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER SHIP HISTORY (1920 to 2016)

 

Book - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0465-1

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-365-25019-4

Library of Congress

Control Number: 

2008901616

(Book Version)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIERS REDESIGNATED AND OR RECLASSIFIED (1953 to 2016)

 

U. S. AIRCRAFT

CARRIERS

REDESIGNATED

AND OR

RECLASSIFIED

(1953 to 2016)

 

BOOK - ISBN NO.

978-1-4276-0452-1

EBook - ISBN NO.

978-1-365-25041-5

Library of Congress

(Book Version)

2008901619

 

ENERGY QUEST AND U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER DEPLOYMENT HISTORY INVESTMENT CAPITAL REQUIRED TO PUBLISH 55 EIGHTH HUNNDRED PAGE BOOKS AND EBOOKS (48 Navy Books)

 

ENERGY QUEST AND U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER DEPLOY. HISTORY INVESTMENT CAPITAL REQUIRED TO PUBLISH 55 EIGHTH HUNNDRED PAGE BOOKS, EBOOKS & CD’s

(48 Navy Books)

 

Book - ISBN NO.

To Be Announced

EBook - ISBN No.

978-1-365-26038-4