ENERGY QUEST HISTORY
CRUDE OIL EXPLOITATION
Petroleum accounted for 42% of the total U. S. energy consumption as of 1991. In 1991, The United States imported 25% of the total fossil fuel consumed in our economy (half of the necessary petroleum consumed) and 25% of the total fossil fuel consumed throughout the world on an annual basses. In 1991 The U. S. population was 4.7% of the world’s population. As of June 2001, the U. S. population is estimated at 5% of the world’s population. Approximately 260 billion dollars annually is spent on Fossil fuel costs with 65 billion dollars allocated to foreign fossil fuel suppliers. Population of the United States is projected to double to more than one-half billion within the next 60 years (USBC 1991). Due to increased energy requirements for the growth of the U. S. and the U. S. dependency on foreign oil; more reliance on coal, increased domestic crude oil/natural gas exploitation and possible expansion of nuclear power plants has the attention of President Bush in order to provide the U. S. it’s thirst for energy. .
U. S. Department of Energy report on Petroleum Issues and Trends, published in 1996 reported the U. S. imported 9.4 million barrels per day of crude oil and petroleum products. “U. S. gross import dependency has fluctuated broadly in line with the fluctuations in import volumes. It reached a peak of 48% back in 1977, dropped to 32-35% between 1982 and 1985, and then picked up fairly steadily to reach 52 percent in 1995. In 1993 and 1994 net imports dependency reached 46% of demand, nearly equaling the 1977 record. In 1978, the demand for crude oil reached its all-time high of18.8 million barrels per day. During the early 1980’s, it had plunged to 15.2 million barrels per day and in 1995 rebounded to 18.2 million barrels per day, an increase of 3.0 million barrels per day, or 20%, over the mid-1980’s low point.” http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/analysis_publications/petroleum_issues_trends_1996/CHAPTER4.PDF
United States 19.21 19.23 19.80 19.83 19.52
U. S. Territories .31 .33 .31 .34 .32
United States 18.98 19.26 19.85 19.81 19.70
U. S. Territories .37 .28 .32 .37 .34
1ST QTY 2ND QTY 3RD QTY 4TH QTY AVERAGE
United States 19.80 19.56 19.69 19.32 19.59
U. S. Territories .38 .37 .29 .33 .34
U. S. continued dependency on foreign crude oil and the U. S. Net Oil Imports 1990 through 2000 is listed below (DOE Petroleum Issues and Trends report published in 1996 and Imported Net Oil Imports, 1990 through 2000 report reflects a difference of 1.514 million barrels per day imported in 1995): http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/ipsr/t410.txt
United States--Net Oil Imports, 1990-2000
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 19981999 2000 2001
9.912 10.419 10.637
Current U.S. Crude Oil Overview published by the U. S. Department of Energy: http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/petroleum/info_glance/crudeoil.html
NATURAL GAS EXPLOITATION
“On February 23, 2001 storage inventories of natural gas in the U. S. were estimated to be about 937 Billion cubic feet (Bcf). It is estimated that remaining inventories will be near the record low levels reached at the end of the 1995-96 heating season in the East and Producing Region. Inventory Levels in the West reached below 151 Bcf March 31, 2001,” according to DOE Natural Gas Storage in the U. S. in 2001:
Current Assessment and Near Term Outlook
Average Temperature Map
Deviation from Normal Temperatures Map)
DOE Natural Gas weekly update
Exploration of natural gas has been proposed, located at the base of Alamo Mountain near the Texas border under Otero Mesa and is known as Orogrande; which lies between Guadalupe Mountains, between Carlsbad and El Paso, extending across parts of Sierra and Otero counties in New Mexico and Hudspeth County in Texas.
“Of the nearly 7 million acres of Federal, State, Tribal, and private lands in the two counties, BLM Las Cruces Field Office administers approximately 1.8 million surface acres and 5 million acres with underlying Federal minerals,” according to Las Cruces BLM Resource Management Plan Amendment Introduction (BLM RMPA Introduction).
“Within the Planning Area, approximately 2,042,311 million acres of public land have been withdrawn in order to protect special uses or resources, or to ensure public safety (this acreage was calculated by adding the acreage managed by the Department of Defense (both withdrawn and acquired), National Park Service, Bureau of Reclamation, and public water reserves). These areas include the White Sands Missile Range, Holloman Air Force Base, McCregor Range, Bureau of Reclamation projects, Federal Aviation Administration land and other lands,” according to Las Cruces BLM RMPA Chapter 2-2.2.1).
President Bush has directed federal agencies to expedite their review of permits for energy projects. President Bush’s energy plan calls for more aggressive domestic oil and gas exploration, including development on federal lands. It places an emphasis on natural gas and the need to build more pipelines to get the gas to market. New Mexico known reserves is estimated at 16.5 trillion cubic feet and for the most part natural gas reserves are located in the San Juan and Permian basins. HEYCO President George Yates said “there could be as much as 9 trillion cubic feet of gas just on the New Mexico side of the basin.” As of June 10, 2001, natural gas prices were $4.00 per cubic feet. New Mexico produces approximately 10% of U. S. consumption, ranking New Mexico as the second larges U. S. supplier of natural gas in the 48 states. Bob Gallagher, President of the New Mexico Oil and Gas Association stated publicly Otero Mesa "is potentially one of the largest new gas finds in the western United States.”
The Federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is responsible to recommend proposals’ allowing for natural gas/oil exploration on those federal lands the BLM manages. Of the 260,000 acres desired for natural gas exploration by those in the natural gas industry, as of June 10, 2001, 20,000 acres may be available for leasing, as stated by Mr. Phillips, a land-use planner of the BLM responsible for federal lands in New Mexico. “The BLM's preferred alternative would close 64,600 acres to leasing. A more restrictive alternative rejected by the agency would put more than 325,000 acres completely off limits and do a better job of protecting the environment.”
The BLM resource management plans for the Otero Mesa area was issued in 1986. Recent industry pressure and President Bush’s directive to the BLM, exploring means to allow oil/natural gas exploration on federal lands prompted the BLM to revise the old plan. Under the new plan Otero Mesa was addressed but the McGregor Range of Fort Bliss, managed by the U. S. Army will be addressed in a separate review. Mr. Phillips believes construction of “new roads can change water-flow patterns, disrupt wildlife habitat and introduce noxious weeds.” The new plan proposes that wells can be drilled 150 yards from existing roads in blocks of 320 acres or larger.
“President George Yates called the restrictions "so onerous that wells would not be drilled. "It would force companies to access most of the reserve through directional drilling, which can cost three times more than traditional methods, he said. "The resource out there is not expected to be prolific enough to drill directional wells," Yates said. "The environmental groups that are making that argument are ensuring that you pay a very high price for natural gas and electricity, because that's the tradeoff."
Some of the concerns:
Visual landscape effected.
Gas drilling could affect Water quality by passing through the aquifer.
Increased road traffic of the existing roads could tear up the dirt roads Ranchers in the area rely on.
Grassland birds such as the Baird's sparrow; a migratory and wintering bird are sensitive to fragmentation from new roads and rely on healthily grasses and plant diversity.
BLM’s proposed requirements could "burden a project financially."
“The big issue for us on Otero Mesa with oil and gas is habitat fragmentation" caused by new roads and well pads, said Alexa Sandoval, a habitat specialist with the New Mexico Game and Fish Department in Roswell. The mesa links the Sacramento Mountains to the north with the Guadalupe Mountains to the south and is a safe heaven to wildlife. Chihuahuan Desert grassland in New Mexico is home to Kangaroo rats, black-tailed prairie dogs, raptors, and the pronghorn antelope herd on Otero Mesa is believed to be genetically unique because the animals descend from native antelope, not from ones that were reintroduced to New Mexico at the turn of the century and dozens of other birds and animals make the grasslands their home. The BLM is consulting with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to determine how a pipeline would affect the endangered aplomado falcon, which has been observed in the area.”
Information aforementioned was obtained from the Las Cruces BLM Resource Management Plan Amendment, Environmental Impact Statement for Federal Fluid Minerals Leasing Development in Sierra and Otero Counties, New Mexico. http://www.nm.blm.gov/www/lcfo/white_sands_rmpa_eis/white_sands_rmpa_eis.html and an article written by Tania Soussan, Journal Staff Writer under the guidelines of Cornell publication ethics. http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml
Floods and other natural disasters affect the environment, yet the environment has a tendency to adapt and in the aftermath of a natural disaster, new life always seems to sprout up and continue, despite Mother Nature’s fury.
Implementing safe guards in order to ensure that the Otero Mesa ecological system and the Guadalupe Mountains not be adversely affected obviously is a top priority and any and all concerned scientist, biologists, BLM managers, industry spokes persons and citizens must submit recommendations, ultimately resulting in solutions. The BLM is considering proposals from various sources and possibly restricting 64,600 to 325,000 acres for exploration and or completely off limits for gas exploration is seen as vital to the areas ecological system by some. Common sense dictates that every available means will be explored and current technologies shall be utilized in order to safe guard the environment. Although I am at the bottom of the list and my recommendations may not seem realistic, as an American I am compelled to speak out.
“There are no specific noise control requirements available for wildlife species within the Planning Area. The State of New Mexico and Sierra and Otero Counties do not have quantitative requirements for assessing the compatibility of a noise source with a land use. In some cases, Federally threatened and endangered wildlife species may be affected by elevated noise levels. High noise levels potentially can mask communications by wildlife that are used to attract mates and defend territories,” according to Las Cruces BLM RMPA Chapter 2-2.2.6.
Natural Gas Wellhead Visual Impact on the Environment
A natural gas wellhead http://www.solarpv.com/oil_and_gas_app_1.html site should be fenced and outside/alongside the fence, native plants, tumble weeds or bushes could be placed, in order to counter environmental visual impact and prevent the majority of wildlife from entering the wellhead site. In order to limit environmental visual impact further, artificial trees, with limbs and built-in nest for birds to roost on could cover up vertical pipes and other enclosed regulating devices/products necessary for natural gas exploration; provided the tree trunks had vents and allowed access to valves and other components for maintenance. Horizontal pipes several feet off the ground and ten feet or longer within the wellhead site could be covered of with artificial tree trunks/log and likewise, would have vents and access to valves and other components for maintenance.
Siemens Solar Systems http://www.solarpv.com pre-engineered power solutions for oil and gas applications intelligent and programmable devices known as Remote Terminal Units (RTU) are used for the automation of natural gas wellheads using solar power to operate industrial micro controllers. RTU integrate measurement, computation, control and communications in a low-power stand alone package using Siemens SIMATIC 8635 RTU's coupled to Siemens M55 solar modules.
Siemens Solar systems web site provides a picture of what a typical natural gas wellhead site looks like. Siemens energy efficient solar cell and associated technologies operate in semi-arid, high humidity, hot, tropical storms and occasional hurricanes; providing Remote Real-Time Data Acquisition and Communications on production at a natural gas wellhead. These solar cells would be visual and be placed in the corners of the wellhead site rather then next to particular enclosed devices if trees were used in order to limit environmental visual impact, since life like artificial trees would undoubtedly cause birds to roost in the area of the wellhead site and bird droppings could prevent the solar cell from operating efficiently. Utilizing these methods, there would be virtually no visual environmental impact and the birds would prove it. For those who are skeptical I would recommend placing a tree in the area proposed for natural gas exploration and watch what the birds do.
Roads are for the purpose of transporting equipment; materials and supplies in order to drill wells and have access to the wellheads for maintenance and up keep. There are several ways to deliver the necessary equipment, materials or supplies needed to drill wells and install the pipe without the construction of new roads; utilizing existing roads within Otero Mesa to those sites within 150 yards from existing roads. Areas chosen for drilling that have no road access can still be drilled without constructing roads. Road construction and maintenance is very expensive.
A Helicopter could deliver a bull dozer to a drill site in order to clear an area necessary for a drilling rig to drill the well, that is, if time was the issue and the wellheads required immediate development and the noise didn’t affect wildlife during flight operations. Likewise, the helicopter could transport all materials; supplies, pipe and the drilling rig to the drilling site; even if equipment had to be disassembled. Trail’s to the wellhead approximately 8 to 12 feet in width could be constructed rather then roads, along the natural gas lines to the well- heads, in order to gain access to the wellhead through the use of Quadra tracks or vehicles designed with swamp buggy tires for maintenance and up keep of the wellheads.
Rather then digging the ditches from the wellhead out, ditches could be dug to the wellhead, in order to make use of the ditch construction site to the wellhead for the equipment hauling in the gravel, sand, pipe, materials and supplies; which would be restricted to an area of no more then 12 to 15 to 20 to 40 feet in width. By the time the bulldozer, excavator or trencher reached the wellhead; pipe would be in the ground and covered up. Native grass would be replanted on top the ditch and in the 12 to 15 to 20 to 40 feet restricted construction area the trails would be constructed alongside the natural gas line, thereby allowing access for equipment removal if helicopters were not used. If the trails were atop the ditch, then native grass would be replanted alongside the natural gas line. Once equipment was removed in the 12 to 15 to 20 to 40 feet construction area, the area would be reduced to 8 to 12 feet trails.
Main natural gas line is double walled and is usually 8 feet deep and is approximately 2 feet in diameter. The main line once placed in the ditch, sets atop round rock, sand and is covered up with sand. Technically, heavy vehicles like semi trucks can drive atop underground main line because the gravel, sand and dirt are compacted. However, lightweight maintenance vehicles can be used gaining access to all wellhead sites whether the trails are atop the ditch or alongside.
Helicopters are expensive to operate and if they were used, the U. S. Military could provide the helicopters deferring the cost rather then contracting commercial businesses providing helicopters but there would still be a fuel expense. It could be argued that military personnel involved in the transporting of equipment, etc., would be provided cost affective training while “fighting the energy crisis as if it were equivalent to a national war.” The BLM, U. S. Government and natural gas industry must decide the issue of where the helicopters would come from or if they should be used, with input from the public. Swift and precise construction methods will accomplish natural gas exploration quickly; thereby limiting the time heavy equipment will be in Otero Mesa. Providing a method to transport equipment, materials, etc., to the wellhead is necessary and a helicopter could easily transport the equipment to its next construction site or the equipment would be removed through the restricted construction area of the natural gas line. Restricting the natural gas line construction area to 12 to 15 to 20 feet would require all heavy equipment whether the equipment has tracks or tires, to straddle atop the newly laid pipe, once removed from the wellhead site if not removed by a helicopter or alongside the natural gas line if 20 feet of area was available.
Adopting innovative construction techniques to dig the ditch and lay the pipe would reduce the natural gas line restricted construction area to 12 to 15 feet. Even if hundreds of labors were manhandling wheelbarrows hauling in the gravel and sand for the ditch the job could be accomplished. Four feet wide rails with rollers, fastened together allowing hundreds of workers to roll all materials needed for the construction of the natural gas line is another method. These methods are presented illustrating numerous means available to limit the area of impact from natural gas line construction. Whether old or new methods are used the ecological system of Otero Mesa will recover if the construction area of the natural gas line is restricted to the minimum necessary to do the job cost effectively. Construction zones 40 by 40 feet every 150 yards would be beneficial for construction of the natural gas line, allowing minimum environ-mental impact from natural gas line construction, reduce excessive dump truck backing and allow dump trucks to turn around.
In order to reduce manpower, taking a more realistic approach, utilizing technologies presently available, special equipment should be designed. Equipment 8 feet wide 48 feet in length designed with a belly dump the length of the machine, motorized with corn picker style chain driven vertical wheels; four to six on each side in order to straddle the ditch is recommended. This machine would have at one end a large bucket in order to supply the machine gravel and or sand with a rotating bottom the length of the machine on both sides the belly dump, in order to pull the gravel and or sand from the large end bucket. This machine would have a compacter the length of the belly dump and be lowered by hydraulics into the ditch atop the gravel or sand and would vibrate. Natural Gas line could be lowered into the ditch from the machine.
Debris from the bulldozer’s leveling process would have to be removed or restructured in the environment and biologists would inspect the area in front of the bulldozer in order to locate bird nest or animal habitats, thereby relocating wildlife. Snake dens would have to be located but undoubtedly some snakes may be killed. Of course Modernization dictates we use modern equipment for delivering gravel/sand, pipe, materials and supplies and dump trucks can back 150 yards in order to reduce the construction area to 12 to 15 feet in width and drop off piles of gravel and sand. Bob Cats/Front End Loaders can deliver gravel and sand to the bucket on the specially designed machine, which would provide the sand and gravel to the belly dump of the machine, dumping gravel or sand in the ditch, working atop the ditch and laid pipe. Flatbed truck with a crane used for the pipe and dump truck’s must bring the materials to the designated starting point of natural gas line construction sites or 40 by 40 feet construction zones, but it is not necessary to have the room on both sides the ditch for truck maneuverability “anywhere along the natural gas line construction area”. A machine to carry the pipe to the machine that sets atop the ditch can be designed that would drive both directions with an onboard crane loading pipe from the 40 by 40 feet construction zones, thereby not requiring turn around area or the helicopter could deliver the pipe to the machine. Twenty to Forty feet natural gas line construction areas would be nice but even a bull dozer, trencher, excavator and or drilling rig need not drive atop the pipe in a 12 to 15 feet restricted construction area when its time to remove the equipment from the wellhead, because the tracks or tires on these equipments are not wider then 8 to 10 feet and technically they could even be atop the main line as the weight of equipment is spread out and not centralized in one spot.
Under ground pipe containing the natural gas will be doubled walled, enclosing the pipe containing the natural gas in order to guarantee there will never be any natural gas leakage. The second pipe could have valves installed in order to relieve any natural gas from the main line if there was ever a leak. Natural gas detection devices would be installed within the second pipe in order to alert personnel of any natural gas leak within the main line. Natural gas lines must have above ground blow by pipes installed. Several miles from where I live there is a main natural gas line buried eight feet in the ground, doubled walled and two feet in diameter. This main line was buried under the Santiam River and a Main
Substation several miles from my residence serves as a designated unmanned blow by “ventilation station” in order to vent a natural gas line that services the surrounding area of Scio, Marion and Jefferson, Oregon. Several years ago natural gas was vented at this sub station and many thought there was an explosion. The Jefferson Rural Fire Department was called to the location only to find out this was a necessary preventive measure when to much natural gas is in the lines. Regulating the amount of natural gas in the pipeline may avoid eliminating excessive amounts of blow by. I believe we can safe guard the environment utilizing construction methods friendly to the environment and as a result, 9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas would become available, supplying Americans fuel for energy.
For a compressive understanding of natural gas storage, prices, market status, demand and next generation natural gas, the following information provided by DOE clearly illustrates the U. S. demand for Natural Gas:
Annual U.S. Natural Gas Supply and Demand (1989-2003)
DOE Natural Gas Summary
Natural Gas Market: Status and Outlook
Next Generation Natural Gas
Natural Gas Restructuring - Status of Natural Gas Residential Choice Programs by State as of 2001 http://www.eia.doe.gov/oil_gas/natural_gas/restructure/restructure.html
Summary Statement of Beth Campbell, Energy Information Administration Department of Energy before the Subcommittee on Energy and Air Quality Committee on Energy and Commerce U. S. House of Representatives on Natural Gas February 28, 2001
Quarterly Natural Gas Supply and Demand: Mid World Oil Price Case 2001–2003 http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/8tab.html
U. S. Natural Gas Market: Recent Trends and Prospects of the Future
Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition (NGV) Industry Offers Truckers a More Economic Choice: http://www.ngvc.org/ngv/ngvc.nsf “Arlington, Va. -- March 16, 2000 -- "The Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition sympathizes with the members of the National Owner Operators Trucking Association who converged on Capitol Hill today to protest the rise in fuel prices," said Richard R. Kolodziej, President of the NGVC. "We have a solution, however, to paying higher prices for fuel: natural gas. "Nationwide, natural gas generally sells for less than a dollar per gasoline gallon equivalent compared to over $2.00 in some areas for diesel fuel," said Kolodziej. "Right now there are thousands of natural gas trucks, buses and other vehicles operating all across the country, and their owners are especially thankful for their decision to switch to natural gas.” In addition to putting money back into the pockets of America's drivers today, increased use of natural gas vehicles can help reduce the impact of future cartel-controlled oil price hikes. "Over 50 percent of the oil we used is imported, and that number is projected to rise to over 60 percent within 10 years. On the other hand, over 85 percent of the natural gas we use is produced right here in America, and virtually all the rest is produced in Canada," Kolodziej said. "The economic and foreign policy of the United States should not be at the mercy of countries that may not have our best interests at heart, and natural gas vehicles help reduce our dependence on foreign oil." Yet another benefit of natural gas vehicles concerns the environment. "Compared to conventional fuels, natural gas vehicles produce far fewer harmful emissions – including greenhouse gases," Kolodziej said. The NGVC is a national organization dedicated to the development of a growing, sustainable and profitable natural gas vehicle market. The NGVC represents more than 180 natural gas companies, equipment manufacturers, service providers, environmental groups and government organizations interested in the promotion and use of natural gas as a transportation fuel,” according to NGVC http://www.ngvc.org
The following articles are provided by NGVC:
NGVC Disappointed in President's Energy Plan
NGVC Hails Introduction of CLEAR ACT
NGVC Hails Introduction of CLEAR ACT
House Subcommittee Hears Natural Gas Industry Update, Benefits
Natural Gas Fueling Station Safety and Maintenance Reminder (PDF)
Technology Committee Bulletin - Pressure Relief Devices (PDF)
When Yellow Cab Goes Green
Honda Delivers 60 Civic GX Natural Gas Vehicles To New York State Department of Transportation
GSA Employees "Drive Green" in Natural Gas Shuttle Vans
NGV Industry Offers Truckers a More Economic Choice
Fuel Maker C3 Product Bulletin
DOE Bets on Hydrogen Reformed from Natural Gas
NGVC Response to CARB Transit Bus Study, April 26, 2002
"MotorWeek" Highlights AFVs, April 12, 2002
Fast Facts About NGVs
CARB Study Talking Points
April 26, 2002
KeySpan Energy Delivery Awarded the Green Apple
What People Are Saying
Metropolitan Washington Council of Government's - Advanced Technology Vehicle Program-The Clean Alternative, January, 2000 http://www.mwcog.org/trans/cleantaxi.html
How Safe Are Natural Gas Vehicles?
“High Yield Technologies for the Environment (HYTE), is an engineering and marketing company dedicated to providing low environmental impact technologies in the fields of transportation and power generation. HYTE is a recognized leader and pioneer in Italy as specialist in heavy-duty NGVs and in the utilization of gas engines for powering HVACs and small CHP units. In the field of engineering and development of NGVs, at the beginning of 1996 HYTE signed a Joint Venture Agreement with Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie (BCF) for the development of the prototype of a new model of 12 m (40 ft.) low floor city bus powered by a 230 HP dedicated CNG engine. After release of prototype at the end of September 1996, from November 1996 until May 1997, HYTE and BCF have produced 16 CNG buses, which have been put in service in Florence (14 units) Bolzano (2 units), Pistoia (5 units) showing excellent reliability and performance. The competence of HYTE in this Joint Venture is the installation on a new bus of the CNG engine, automatic transmission, engine accessories, gas carburation system, CNG cylinders, piping, and filling system, interfacing all the electronics on board, and testing the vehicles before return the buses to the BCF factory. Today HYTE http://www.hyte.net/nat.htm is also acting as consultant for some municipalities for programs of utilization of new NGVs but also for projects for repowering diesel buses and garbage trucks with dedicated CNG and LPG engines.
Low-emission vehicle use can reduce air pollution in the Washington region. The Advanced Technology Vehicle Program The Clean Alternative—is funded by the Maryland Department of Transportation (MDOT) and administered by the Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments (COG). In this program, Maryland DOT seeks fleet operators willing to help improve our air quality by applying advanced low-emission vehicle technology to their high-mileage or high-fuel-use fleets.
“Two of the world's leading industrial gas companies, Linde Technische Gase of Germany and AGA of Sweden, formed the new international gas company Linde Gas AG with 1.5 million customers in 50 countries. Linde Gas is the leading gas company in Europe and number four worldwide.
AGA products http://www.aga.com/products and Linde products http://www.linde.de/de/de.jsp Linde Gas AG is a division of the Linde Group, with 19,000 employees in 50 countries throughout Europe, the U.S., Latin America, Asia and Australia. The company has annual sales of EUR 3.6 billion.”at. Linde Gas AG is a division of the Linde Group, with 19,000 employees in 50 countries throughout Europe, the U.S., Latin America, Asia and Australia. The company has annual sales of EUR 3.6 billion.”
American Gas Association (AGA) “is a national trade association composed of about 250 U.S. local natural gas utilities. AGA’s primary role is to serve as an advocate for gas utilities in the federal legislative and regulatory arenas. As a result, only gas utilities are allowed to participate in the association’s policy-making and advocacy committees. Natural gas pipelines and other gas-related enterprises, however, are also members of AGA as limited, international or associate members. By collecting, analyzing and disseminating information and data on the natural gas industry, AGA assists its members, policy-makers and others in understanding the dynamics of this increasingly competitive business. Through an array of operating and engineering programs, the association helps members maintain and enhance the safety of the natural gas delivery system, which boasts the best safety record in the energy transportation sector, according to the U.S. Department of Transportation. AGA seeks to assist its members in their marketing efforts through research, promotion of natural gas products and technologies, and coordination of the placement of trade and cooperative advertising. AGA also serves as the voice of the natural gas utility industry through national public relations outreach efforts. AGA also provides administrative services to the American Gas Cooling Center, the Industrial (Gas Technology Commercialization) Center, the Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition, the International Gas Center and PRC International, a pipeline research organization,” according to Maintenance Solutions May 1998.
Enhanced Oil Recovery or EOR, Dateline 01/18/99 About, Inc.
“To extract oil (or natural gas) from the earth, an energy source is required. Often, the earth itself provides the energy. Because the oil or gas, and any water, which is in the rock, are under pressure due to the weight of the material above them. Also they are buoyant because they are less dense than the rock around them and so, because of these two situations, they will move to an area of lower pressure and higher elevation - the well head. This is what happens with a 'gusher'. After some pressure has been released, the oil may still flow to the surface, but it does so more slowly, just as water does when you turn down the pressure in a garden hose. Sometimes, a mechanical pump on the surface can help the movement along - the 'grasshopper' pumps one often sees. The above processes are typically referred to as 'Primary Oil Recovery'. It is not unusual that during primary recovery less than 50% of the oil in the rock is recovered - obviously the ideal case would be to recover 100% of the oil.”
“Pursuing Enhanced Oil Recovery methods can increase recovery. These methods are usually divided into two groups, secondary and tertiary. Secondary recovery generally refers to pumping either a fluid or gas into the ground to build backpressure that was dissipated during primary recovery. The most common method is to just inject water and is simply called a water flood. Care must be taken to make sure that the water and oil do not mix to form an emulsion because the cost of separating the oil and water after they are pumped out of the ground becomes prohibitive. There are other types of secondary recovery using fluids other than water. Generally, secondary recovery is characterized by methods that do not significantly affect the properties of the oil or rock.”
“Tertiary recovery, on the other hand, is a process that does usually significantly affect the oil or rock. Many people tend to visualize an oil pool as a volume of oil sitting in a cave under the earth. While this is occasionally accurate, it is much more common that the oil in the rock is more like water in a stiff sponge. The oil inhabits microscopic pores in the rock and must flow through a network of these pores to reach the surface. Most tertiary recovery schemes use chemical reactions or heat to either thin the oil so it flows more freely or change the properties of the surface of each mineral grain in the rock so that the oil does not stick to it as tightly. In this type of recovery one must be careful that the process used to thin the oil or make it stick less does not damage the pore network (permeability) of the rock and inhibit the oil flow. When this does happen, it is called formation damage. Some types of tertiary recovery are steam injection, miscible fluid injection (the oil dissolves in another fluid, lowering the viscosity), and surfactant injection (surfactants make the oil stick less tightly to the mineral grains).
“Secondary recovery techniques are not too expensive or difficult and are often used. Tertiary techniques, while they may lead to a greater amount of oil recovery than secondary techniques, are relatively expensive and more technically difficult. They are typically only used when oil prices are fairly high. Because of this, they have not been nearly as extensively field tested as secondary techniques. There has been a great amount of research going on in the development of tertiary methods and there is much room for innovation in this area. In a future feature article we will look more closely at this subject.” About, Inc.
History of the world natural gas industry http://www.petrobras.com.br/ingles/canalcli/historia.htm
Natural Gas General Information http://www.afdc.nrel.gov/altfuel/gas_general.html
What is Natural Gas?
Dynetek Delivers Lightweight Fuel Tanks of Natural Gas Vehicles http://composite.about.com/industry/composite/library/PR/2001/bldynetek1.htm?iam=dpile&terms=%2Bnatural+%2Bgas+%2Bequipment
WestStart-CALSTART provides the latest information on electric, natural gas, hybrid electric vehicles, mobility systems, and intelligent transportation systems
Gameco Group http://www.gameco.com.au/default.htm are specialists in equipment for gas and associated industries with a wide range of products mainly for use with LP Gas and Natural Gas servicing Australia and the South Pacific. Natural Gas Equipment Catalogue http://www.gameco.com.au/cat/catngf.htm
Books and Publications
Controls, Thermostats and Accessories
Flame Failure Valves
Gas Turrets and Cocks
Radiant Hoses Igniters
Labels, Signs and Plates
Injectors & Jets
Rail Cocks and Knobs
Thermocouples and Thermopiles
Natural Gas Generator http://www.powergenerator.net/natural_gas_generator.htm “Owning a natural gas generator will provide your home or business with electricity when your utility power becomes interrupted due to snow, ice or high winds. With a natural gas generator installed, you will be able to keep your refrigerator freezer running and not have to worry about losing your frozen foods. If the electrical interruption occurs in winter, a natural gas generator will keep the blower on your gas furnace operating and thus avoid frozen water lines. Even a small unit can help by running an appliance or two along with a few lights. A natural gas generator will cost 40 to 50 percent less per hour to run than gasoline powered models. A natural gas generator does not require any fuel to be stored at your home for its operation. Natural gas is supplied to the generator from the line that delivers gas to your water heater, furnace and other gas appliances. Models are available in a variety of sizes from 5 KW (Kilowatt) to 60 KW to match your electrical load.
Automatic start: Many natural gas generators offer an option, which senses when a failure occurs in your electricity supply. The standby unit starts itself and begins giving you electricity in 30 to 60 seconds. It then monitors the electricity from your supplier and, when it senses that the power is restored, shuts itself off.
Weather proof enclosure: The generator sits outside your home in a painted, weather proof enclosure like your air conditioning unit. This cover protects the equipment from rain and snow.
Companies such as Lister-Petter, Misubishi Diesel, Lombardini and Generac manufacture generator engines. These are the same reliable engines, which power industrial machines and other devices.
Because we are a factory direct distributor for the engines we use in our generator sets - you save money! Most other generator factories purchase through a distributor such as us - their cost of engines will be higher as a result We offer several different models for your use. Please contact us for our customized personal service.
Logging and Monitoring Equipment & Services page 1 of 2 http://petroleum.about.com/industry/petroleum/cs/loggingmonitoring/index.htm?iam=dpile&terms=%2Bnatural+%2Bgas+%2Bequipment
“Ditch Witch® http://www.ditchwitch.com organization specializes in the design and manufacture of high quality underground construction equipment. This includes being the one stop source for trenchers, vibratory plows, pneumatic piercing tools, backhoes, a complete line of Subsite® electronic tracking and locating tools, directional drilling systems, drill pipe, vacuum excavation systems, and other downhole tools. All of these products are recognized around the world for their advanced design, rugged construction, long-term durability, ease of use and reliability. This product line represents the most complete range of equipment for installing utilities underground. Ditch Witch products are used in a variety of underground applications including the installation of power and communications lines, water, sewer and natural gas pipes, environmental remediation, sprinkler and irrigation systems, and a wide range of buried service lines. To promote maximum productivity, the Ditch Witch organization offers complete training and technical support. A global network of dealers firmly committed to supplying the service and support that consistently meet the needs of customers’ worldwide backs all Ditch Witch products. This legendary dedication to customer service by the knowledgeable dealers who sell and service the Ditch Witch products is truly what makes us the Underground Authority, Worldwide. The new Ditch Witch® JT2720 All Terrain horizontal directional drilling system offers rock-drilling capabilities that no other directional drilling unit can match. The new Mach 1 series of Jet Trac HDD systems offers increased power and automated features such as simplified Mach 1 electronics, cruise control and automated pipe loader functions that make each the most efficient and productive horizontal directional drilling machine in its size and class.
Delta Machine Products, Inc. http://www.deltamp.com manufactures a complete line of vibratory plows and land clearing/brush mulching equipment. Vibratory plows are used in direct burial of communication cable and natural gas polyethylene pipe. Our land clearing/brush mulching tractors are used to remove unwanted trees and brush without the harmful environmental effects of other methods such as burning or dumping in landfills.
DT-130C DT-150C DT-190C DT-240C DT-300C
Engine CAT 3046 CAT 3116 CAT 3116 CAT 3306 CAT 3306
Horse Power Turbo-125 Turbo-177 Turbo-200 Turbo-300 Turbo-300
Plowing Depth 24”-36” 24”-48” 24”-48” 36”-60” 36”-70”
Chute Size 1.5”-4”ID 1.5”-4”ID 1.5”-4”ID 1.75" - 6" ID 1.75" - 6" ID
Weight 22,000lbs 26,000lbs 32,000lbs 58,000lbs 85,000lbs
UMAC Incorporated of Exton, PA, has been providing quality products and service to the natural gas industry for over 25 years. We are the world's leading manufacturer of Excess Flow® automatic safety cut-off valves for gas service lines (EFVs) for both residential and commercial applications. EFVs safeguard against catastrophic damage resulting from gas line breaks. Different models of UMAC Excess Flow valves are available for use on underground gas service lines, in-house service lines and at appliance connections. In addition they represent and distribute products made by Raychem Corporation and Ionix Technologies. These products include: Shrink Sleeves for corrosion protection; and Plastic Pipe Static Eliminators. http://www.umac.com
“USGS-The term "acid rain" is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. The more accurate term is "acid precipitation." http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/acidrain/2.html
“Acid Rain maps illustrate acid deposition is a problem in the northeastern U. S. and Canada as well as in northern Europe. The average pH of “unpolluted” rain is approximately 5.6. This pH results from the reaction of naturally occurring carbon dioxide in the atmosphere with water droplets to form carbonic acid. Acid rain has a pH less than 5.3 because it contains sulfuric or nitric acid. Actually, acid rain deposition is a better description than acid rain because snow, fog, and small atmospheric particles may also be acidic. When coal is burned, sulfur (S) present in the coal is oxidized to form sulfur dioxide (SO2). S (in coal) + O2 (gas) = SO2 (gas). Once in the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide reacts with oxygen (O2) to form sulfur trioxide (SO3). 2 SO2 (gas) + O2 (gas) = 2 SO3 (gas). Sulfur trioxide then reacts with water droplets to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4). SO3 (gas) + H2O (liquid) = H2SO4 (aqueous). Nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) are the primary components of the air we breathe. Normally they are not highly reactive. However, under the high temperature and pressure conditions of an automobile engine, these two gases react to form nitrogen oxide (NO). N2 (gas) + O2 (gas) + energy = 2 NO (gas). Once in the atmosphere nitrogen oxide reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide (NO2). 2 NO (gas) + O2 (gas) = 2 NO2 (gas). Nitrogen dioxide is a highly reactive, poisonous, red brown gas. Both nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide are components of photochemical smog. Nitrogen dioxide reacts with the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the atmosphere to form nitric acid (HNO3). NO2 (gas) + OH (gas) = HNO3 (gas). Nitric acid then dissolves in water droplets. Acid rain damages many materials, such as marble, limestone, and steel. The Parthenon in Greece, the Taj Mahal in India, and even the U. S. Capital shows signs of acid erosion. Acid rain has damaged lakes and streams. In southern Norway and Sweden, one fifth of the lakes no longer contain fish. Healthily aquatic environments have a pH of 6.5 or higher. Below a pH of 4.0 a lake is essentially dead. The loss: The loss of aquatic organisms in acid lakes may be due in part to an increase in the quantity of metals, especially aluminum, leached from the soil as the pH falls. Acid rain can damage forests and reduce the productivity of agricultural crops. However, a direct relationship between acid rain and forests decline cannot be easily proven because acid deposition may cause trees to be more susceptible to disease, insects, drought or high winds from which they die, rather than directly from the acid deposition itself.” http://www.hartwick.edu
“Almost everybody has heard about acid rain and knows that it is something bad. But what exactly is it? What are its effects on plants, animals, human beings, and what can be done to solve this problem?” http://ks.essortment.com/acidraineffect_rqmz.htm
“Acid rain is one of the most dangerous and widespread forms of pollution. Sometimes called "the unseen plague," acid rain can go undetected in an area for years. Technically, acid rain is rain that has a larger amount of acid in it than what is normal. The acidity of rain in parts of Europe and North America has dramatically increased over the past few decades. It is now common in many places for rain to be ten to seventy times more acid than unpolluted rain. Many living and non-living systems become harmed and damaged as a result of acid rain. This website gives an informational, in-depth look at acid rain--it's causes and effects; and solutions to the acid rain problem." http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html
“Acidic pollutants can be deposited from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface in wet and dry forms. The common term to describe this process is acid deposition. The term acid precipitation is used to specifically describe wet forms of acid pollution that can be found in rain, sleet, snow, fog, and cloud vapor. An acid can be defined as any substance that when dissolved in water dissociates to yield corrosive hydrogen ions. The acidity of substances dissolved in water is commonly measured in terms of pH (defined as the negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions). According to this measurement scale solutions with pHs less than 7 are described as being acidic, while a pH greater than 7.0 is considered alkaline. Precipitation normally has a pH between 5.0 to 5.6 because of natural atmospheric reactions involving carbon dioxide. Precipitation is considered to be acidic when its pH falls below 5.6 (which is 25 times more acidic than pure water). Some sites in eastern North America have precipitation with pHs as low as 2.3 or about 1000 times more acidic than natural." Natural lakes and streams have an acidity of between 6 and 8. This kills certain aquatic plant and animal life.
“Why are the trees dying? How come there are no fish in the lake? Why does the paint on my Dad's car look so bad? Where does that terrible rotten egg smell come from in our school yard every Spring? The answer to these questions is simple; acid rain is responsible for many of the serious environmental problems facing us today. While the answer may be simple, solving the acid rain problem is not.” http://www.swlauriersb.qc.ca/english/edservices/pedresources/webquest/cia.htm
“If today is a typical day on planet Earth, we will lose 116 square miles of rainforest or about an acre a second. We will lose another 72 square miles to encroaching deserts, the result of human mismanagement and overpopulation. We will lose 40-100 species, and no one knows whether the number is 40 or 100. Today the human population will increase by 250,000. And today we will add 2,700 tons of CFCs to the atmosphere and 15 million tons of carbon. Tonight the Earth will be a little hotter, its waters more acidic, and the fabric of life more threadbare." http://www.earthgreen.org
“Acid Rain - USGS - Branch Of Quality Systems Mission - Monitoring of wet atmospheric deposition (chemical constituents deposited from the atmosphere via rain, sleet and snow) and precipitation chemistry. Tracks Acid Rain -Rain and snow are naturally slightly acidic due to chemical reactions with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.” http://bqs.usgs.gov
Atmospheric Deposition and Water Quality http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/airdep/air1.html
An airshed is the geographic area responsible for emitting 75% of the air pollution reaching a body of water. Since different pollutants behave differently in the atmosphere, the airshed of a given body of water may vary depending on the pollutant of interest. While watersheds are actual physical features of the landscape, airsheds are determined using mathematical models of atmospheric deposition. Airsheds are very useful in explaining the transportation of pollutants and can help manage a body of water much more effectively.
Atmosphere in Motion: Results from the National Deposition Monitoring Networks
ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF TOXICS TO THE ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION OF THE GREAT LAKES
Isws - The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) http://www.sws.uiuc.edu/hilites/nadp
NOAA - AIRMoN Deposition Program http://www.arl.noaa.gov/research/programs/airmon.html
“The Atmospheric Integrated Research Monitoring Network is an array of stations designed to provide a research-based foundation for the routine operations of the nation's deposition monitoring networks -- the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) for wet deposition, and the Clean Air Status and Tends Network (CASTNet) for dry. A subprogram is specifically designed to detect the benefits of emissions controls mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, and to quantify these benefits in terms of deposition to sensitive areas.
AIRMoN combines two previously-existing deposition research networks that have appropriate characteristics (previously known as the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network and the CORE/satellite Dry Deposition Inferential Method network) under a single operational umbrella, so as to generate a new monitoring activity to which on-line modeling and analysis can be easily applied. An air-sampling component of AIRMoN provides some unique information on changes in air quality.”
Acid deposition - The process by which emissions, chiefly sulfur and nitrogen compounds, either react with the atmosphere when deposited on earth by precipitation of snow, rain, or fog with a pH of 5.6 or below, or settle out as acidic particles or gases.
“Acid Rain Recover Slow: Regulations Making an Impact; More Needed, Say Some – “Acid rain is created when sulfur dioxide, produced primarily by coal-burning power plants, and nitrogen-bearing gases, primarily from automobiles, combine with water vapor in the atmosphere. That creates acidic sulfate and nitrate solutions. While minerals in the soil, like calcium, can neutralize some of the acid, the large amounts of acid rain over the last 100 years have resulted in acidic lakes and streams, harming plant and animal life. October 6, 2000 stud done by the Environmental Protection Agency was published in Thursday’s issue of the journal Nature. It examined acidity in 205 lakes and streams in five regions of North America and three regions in Europe from 1980 to 1995. The best news is that the amount of acidic sulfates entering lakes and streams has declined everywhere, said chief author John Stoddard. The data also showed a drop in acidity of lakes and streams in Europe and a North American region that includes eastern Maine and southern Nova Scotia,” according to ABC NEWS.” http://www.abcnews.go.com
Acid Rain & Forest Health - Missing Pieces in an Ecological Puzzle http://www.edc.uri.edu/dl/DeHayes.htm
Canada-Acid rain is rain, snow or fog that is polluted by acid in the atmosphere and damages the environment. Two common air pollutants acidify rain: sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOX). When these substances are released into the atmosphere, they can be carried over long distances by prevailing winds before returning to earth as acidic rain, snow, fog or dust. When the environment cannot neutralize the acid being deposited, damage occurs. http://www.ec.gc.ca/acidrain
“EPA-Acid rain is a serious environmental problem that affects large parts of the US and Canada. This section of the Web site provides information about acid rain's causes and effects, how we measure acid rain, and what is being done to solve the problem.”
“National Park Service Air Resources Division in an effort to increase the public's awareness of air quality issues has developed a series of five activities for elementary and secondary schools. The activities are for grades six through eight and help teach students about Acid Rain. The lesson plan was prepared as a part of The Uplands Field Research Laboratory, Volunteer in Parks, and Interpretation of Science Project. Funding was provided by the Great Smoky Mountains Natural History Association.” http://www2.nature.nps.gov/air and http://www.nps.gov/cue/air.htm
Tracking and Analysis Framework (TAF) http://www.lumina.com/taf/index.html
USGS Precipitation Quantity and Chemical Quality Monitoring Program http://www.esm.versar.com/pprp/features/Atmosdep/regional_sites/usgs/cat_prog.html
Acid rain is a term commonly used to describe rain, snow, fog, or other precipitation that is full of acids which collect in the atmosphere due mostly to burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and gasoline. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted into the atmosphere react to form compounds that are transported long distances and are subsequently deposited to the Earth's surface in wet and dry forms. Although the term "acid rain" is widely recognized, the dry deposition portion ranges from 20 to 60 percent of total pollutant deposition, and represents the particulate and gaseous forms. A more accurate description of the overall process is acid deposition rather than acid rain.
The effects of acid deposition include acidification of lakes and streams, nutrient enrichment of coastal waters and large river basins, soil nutrient depletion and decline of sensitive forests, agricultural crop damage, and impacts on ecosystem biodiversity. Toxic pollutants and metals also can be transported and deposited through atmospheric processes. Both local and long-range emission sources contribute to atmospheric deposition. http://www.epa.gov/castnet/overview.html
“National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) is a cooperative federal program first authorized in the Acid Precipitation Act of 1980 to coordinate acid rain research and report the findings to Congress.”
New York - "A state law that penalized New York power plants for trading pollution credits to 14 other states was voided by a federal judge on Tuesday, removing a key part of the state's strategy to reduce acid rain in the Adirondacks.” http://www.acid-rain.net
“Reports of acid rain damages in the early 70s were those of Ontario lakes having irreversible fish losses. Dead fish were washing up along the beaches, and the term "wet desert" was being used to describe the clear, blue, fishless lakes. Ontario now has over 100 fishless acidified lakes. Species such as lake trout (see top), walleye, burbot and small mouth bass have disappeared from most of these lakes. Starting in 1981, 202 lakes were monitored in Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces, and in 1994, 33% showed some improvement in acidity while 11% were worse. The remaining 56% had stable acidity levels.” http://www.scar.utoronto.ca
“Research study on acid rain. You may choose to be a specialist in one of the areas listed below. You may research information in your field, compile data, analyze the data, and then meet with others in your group for their input. You will then write a report on this topic. You may write about information you discovered, and creative ideas about any aspect of this topic.” http://www.angelfire.com/ks/boredwalk
“Through their involvement with this project Girl Scouts and their leaders will gain understanding and better appreciation of the causes and effects of acidified precipitation. The data collected will establish a local average pH value from rainstorms that pass through their area. By following weather patterns and studying the industrial resources and population areas 'upwind', the potential sources of acidity may be determined.” http://www.plugged-in.org/acid_rain.html
“The Secretariat is a joint venture between five Swedish environmental organizations with the chief purpose of promoting awareness of the problems associated with air pollution, and thus, in part as a result of public pressure, to bring about the required reduction of the emissions of air pollutants.” http://www.acidrain.org
TRUCKING ARTICLES 2000 – 2001
ENERGY QUEST HISTORY
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A Sailors tale of his Tour of duty in the U.S. Navy (August 1977 to February 1983) - Operation Evening Light and Eagle Claw - (24 April 1980)
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Operations Evening Light and Eagle Claw (24 April 1980) Iran and Air Arm History (1941 to 2016)
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USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA Vol. I
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USS CORAL SEA CV-42, CVB-43, CVA-43 & CV-43 HISTORY, AND THOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIERS OPERATING WITH CORAL SEA DURING HER TOUR OF SERVICE Vol. III
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U. S. AIRCRAFT CARRIER SHIP HISTORY (1920 to 2016)
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